Word Building 3B
Give the meaning of each:
1. εἰσπίπτω = Fall into
2. ἐκπίπτω = Fall out of
3. εἰσάγω = Lead into, Take into
4. προσάγω = Lead towards, Take towards
5. προσβλέπω = Look towards
Here's what I did with my checklist. What do you think, @Aetos?
1. Verb Forms: Endings
- Function of endings: Shows things like number and person. They are basically the sets of letters added to a stem.
- Number: Shows how many people are being talked about with the words. Singular, Plural and Dual are what Attic Greek has.
- Person: The Point of View. Consists of 1st Person (I, we), 2nd Person (you), and 3rd Person (they, he/she/it).
- Regular vs. Contract verb: Regular verbs are verbs that has no contraction taking place when an ending is used on them. Contract verbs are verbs that has a contraction taking place when an ending is used on them, taking place between the last vowel of the verb and the first vowel of the ending.
- Irregular verb "to be." Irregular verbs are verbs that don’t follow the rules set by regular and contract verbs. Ἐστι(ν) is one of them.
- 3rd person singular forms: Ει is added to the stems when it comes to 3rd person singular regular and contract verbs. Ἐστι(ν) is different because it is a movable v word.
-Meaning of the -νυ movable: the letter -v placed at the end of any word so as to avoid having two vowels in a row between separate words.
2. Nouns: Gender, Case and Agreement
- 3 genders: Masculine, Feminine, Neuter
- Case: Cases are what the endings of Nouns are called.
- Stems and endings: Stems are what gives Nouns the meaning. Endings are what shows the function of a noun in the sentence. For nouns, their endings are called cases.
- Function of Nominative and Accusative: Nominative Case is used for the subject of the verb and the complement after the verb “is.” It uses the ending -ς. Accusative Case is used for the direct object of the verb. It uses the ending -ν.
-the meaning of the words don't depend on their order in the sentence but on what their endings are.
- Definite Articles and Adjectives must agree with the Nouns that they go with in gender, number and case.
Chapter 1B Grammar
- There are 3 kinds of accents: Acute, Grave and Circumflex.
- Acute accents are found only on the last 3 syllables of a word.
- Acute accents that are on the final syllable of a word are changed to Grave accents when said word is immediately followed by another word with no punctuation in between.
Chapter 2A Grammar
1. Verb Forms - Indicative Mood, 1st,2nd,3rd Persons Singular
- Definition of Mood: Moods indicate if an action is viewed as being real or ideal.
- Definition of Indicative Mood: The Indicative Mood is used for expressing statements about reality or fact.
- Function of verb endings: Verb Endings not only indicate number and person but also mood.
- Present Indicative verbs: There are three different Present Indicative Verbs: 1st Person, 2nd person, and 3rd Person.
- 1st Person ends in -ω, 2nd Person ends in -εις and 3rd Person ends in -ει. But these only apply to regular and contract verbs.
- Irregular verbs are different. For example, εσ-, which means be has the following. 1st person is εἰμί, an enclitic. 2nd person is εἶ, not an enclitic. 3rd person is ἐστί(ν), an enclitic.
- Subject pronouns aren’t used until you are talking emphatically.
2. The Imperative
- Definition of Imperative mood: The Imperative mood is used to express commands or orders to other people.
- Imperative of σπεύδω, φιλέω and εἰμί - 2nd personal singular.
For the imperative mood of regular and contract verbs, the ending - ε is added to the stems. Irregular verbs, on the other hand, are still different. An example is ἴσθι, which means be.
- Negative commands (how to make a command negative)
To make a negative command, a command that tells someone not to do something, you place μη before the stem that - ε would get added to or the irregular verb.
- The following are prepositions that are added to the front of verbs to form compound verbs: εἰς- which means into, ἐκ- which means out of, ἐν- which means in and πρός- which means towards or to.
2. Articles, Adjectives, and Nouns; Singular, All Cases
- There are 5 cases: Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Vocative. And the way they are written are further differentiated by number and gender.
a) Masculine gender cases
Masculine Nominative: ὁ καλὸς ἀγρός
Masculine Genitive: τοῦ καλοῦ ἀγροῦ
Masculine Dative: τῷ καλῷ αγρῷ
Masculine Accusative: τὸν καλὸν αγρὸν
Masculine Vocative: ὦ καλὲ αγρὲ
b) Neuter gender cases
Neuter Nominative: τὸ καλὸν δένδρον
Neuter Genitive: τοῦ καλοῦ δένδρου
Neuter Dative: τῷ καλῷ δένδρῳ
Neuter Accusative: τὸ καλὸν δένδρον
Neuter Vocative: ὧ καλὸν δένδρον
- Neuter nominative, accusative and vocative endings are the same.
- Function of each case:
a. nominative - used to denote the subject of the sentence or the complement of the verb “to be.”
b. genitive - used only after certain prepositions, like those that express motion from a place.
c. dative - used only after certain prepositions, like those that indicate the place where someone or something happens.
d. accusative - used to denote the direct object of a transitive verb and after certain prepositions, like those that indicate movement towards something or someone.
e. vocative - used when addressing a person. It is usually preceded by ὦ, which need not be translated.
2.Persistent Accent of Nouns and Adjectives
- The accents of nouns and adjectives remain as they are in the nominative case until they are forced to change because of one of several rules.
- An example of such a rule is that if nouns and adjectives are accented in the nominative with a an acute on the final syllable, the acute turns into a circumflex on the final syllable in the Genitive and Dative cases. Definite Articles also follow this rule.
Chapter 3A Grammar
1.Verb Forms: 3rd Person Plural Imperative, Indicative and Infinitives
- 3rd Person Plural Indicative Form: For regular and contract verbs, -ουσι(ν) is added to the stem. But it is still different when it comes to irregular verbs. An example is ἐσ-, which means be. Its 3rd person plural imperative form is εἰσί(ν).
2.Infinitive Mood: It is the form of the verb that we create in English by using thr word ‘to.’ In Attic Greek we the infinitive is formed by using an ending.
- Infinitive Form: For regular and contract verbs, the Infinitive Mood is formed by adding the ending -ειν to the stem. But the case is still different for irregular verbs. An example is ἐσ-, which means be. It’s Infinitive Mood is εἶναι, from adding -ναι to ἐσ.
Chapter 3B Grammer
1.Articles, Adjectives and Nouns; Singular and Plural, All Cases
a)Masculine Gender Cases
- Singular Nominative: ὁ καλὸς ἀγρός
- Singular Genitive: τοῦ καλοῦ ἀγροῦ
- Singular Dative: τῷ καλῷ ἀγρῷ
- Singular Accusative: τὸν καλὸν ἀγρόν
- Singular Vocative: ὦ καλὲ ἀγρέ
- Plural Nominative: οἱ καλοὶ ἀγροί
- Plural Genitive: τῶν καλῶν ἀγρῶν
- Plural Dative: τοῖς καλοῖς ἀγροῖς
- Plural Accusative: τοὺς καλοὺς ἀγρούς
- Plural Vocative: ὦ καλοὶ ἀγροί
b)Neutral Gender Cases
- Singular Nominative: τὸ καλὸν δένδρον
- Singular Genitive: τοῦ καλοῦ δένδρου
- Singular Dative: τῷ καλῷ δένδρῳ
- Singular Accusative: τὸ καλὸν δένδρον
- Singular Vocative: ὦ καλὸν δένδρον
- Plural Nominative: τὰ καλὰ δένδρα
- Plural Genitive: τῶν καλῶν δένδρων
- Plural Dative: τοῖς καλοῖς δένδροις
- Plural Accusative: τὰ καλὰ δένδρα
- Plural Vocative: ὦ καλὰ δένδρα
- in the neuter singular the nominative, accusative and vocative all end in -ον, in the plural they all end in -α. The other neuter endings are the same as the masculine.
- singular and plural genitive, singular and plural dative of the definite article has circumflex accents.
- the acute accent can normally stand on the 3rd syllable from the end of the word only when the final syllable has a short vowel, like ἄνθρωπος.
- like mentioned before, the accent of nouns and adjectives are persistent, which means they stay the same as the nominative until forced to change because of a rule.
- One such rule is that when the final syllable of a word with its accent on the 3rd syllable from the end in the nominative, like ἄνθρωπος, becomes long, meaning a long vowel or a diphthong, the accent shifts one syllable towards the end of the word, like in what happens to the genitive singular, dative singular, genitive plural, dative plural and accusative plural of ἄνθρωπος. Take note, however, that the masculine nominative ending -οι, although a diphthong, is counted as short in determining the accent, so the nominative plural is ἄνθρωποι.
- If a word is accented on the next to last syllable and that syllable is long while the final syllable is short, then the accent is a circumflex, like οἶκος.
- If the final syllable becomes long, the accent becomes an acute, like οἴκου .