Greek third declension nouns

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Bombardier
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Greek third declension nouns

Post by Bombardier » Wed May 15, 2019 3:47 pm

I am currently studying Classical Greek at the City Literary Institute in Central London using the Cambridge University Press 'Reading Greek' textbooks. Part of the homework this week is to practise the declension of αλωπηξ (fox), φυλαξ (guard), σαλπιγξ (war trumpet) and κλωπος (thief). They are all third declension nouns similar to νυξ, νυκτος (night). I am just not sure about the third person plural of each of them and there is no help in the 'Reading Greek' Grammar and Exercises volume. Would be grateful indeed for any specific help or suggestions about Greek grammar books available online.
David Girling

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Scribo
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Re: Greek third declension nouns

Post by Scribo » Wed May 15, 2019 3:52 pm

Here you go, here are the paradigms:

https://www.ccel.org/s/smyth/grammar/ht ... 2e_uni.htm
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jeidsath
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Re: Greek third declension nouns

Post by jeidsath » Wed May 15, 2019 3:58 pm

"Third person plural" is for verbs. Nouns don't have "person". In English, the person in "I go, you go, he goes, we go, you go, they go" is "I, you, he, we, you, they".

Nouns have case and number instead. Singular/Dual/Plural and Nominative/Accusative/Dative/Genitive/Vocative. To find the plural forms, start with the genitive singular, and use the endings from Scribo's link.
Joel Eidsath -- jeidsath@gmail.com

Bombardier
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Re: Greek third declension nouns

Post by Bombardier » Wed May 15, 2019 4:14 pm

My apologies, jeidsath, for such a basic error! I should have said dative plural. I have been learning and using various languages all my life – how could I make such a basic error in my email. I do have the genitive singular of each of the nouns quoted and can list with certainty all cases except dative plural. It must be something like νυξι(ν) – to avoid νυκτ-σι(ν). And thank you, Scribo. I will, somewhat chastened, hie me to the link you provided.

Many thanks to you both.

David Girling

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jeidsath
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Re: Greek third declension nouns

Post by jeidsath » Wed May 15, 2019 4:31 pm

No worries. I've been using language for most of my life, and still have plenty of problems with it.

The dative plural endings often show transformation due to the sigma. The ending is -σι, and different stems change differently when they come into contact with it.

Things to watch out for are πσ = ψ, (φλεψί) and κσ = ξ (φύλαξι). τσ usually becomes σ (θησί), but ντσ drops ντ and lengthens the preceding vowel (γέρουσι from γεροντ-ος gen). ν is dropped (ποιμέσι from ποιμέν-ος). There are probably some other gotchas, but I think those are the main ones.
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wilberfloss
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Re: Greek third declension nouns

Post by wilberfloss » Wed May 15, 2019 5:41 pm

Hi, Bombardier.

There is a stem + ending consonant chart on pages 388-389 of the Reading Greek Grammar and Exercises volume which should be of use.

Bombardier
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Re: Greek third declension nouns

Post by Bombardier » Mon Jun 03, 2019 8:47 pm

Many thanks for more helpful comments. The subsequent lesson went into third declension nouns in considerable depth and I am now much clearer about vowel and consonant changes particularly with the dative plural.

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