Contract Verbs in--έω

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Lukas
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Contract Verbs in--έω

Post by Lukas » Mon Apr 15, 2019 11:24 pm

With Unit 13, I am getting my first introduction to contract verbs in --έω and am confused. I am supposed to translate "We seem." I thought it would be "δοκέομεν," but the answer book writes, "δοκοῦεν." I think that I am supposed to start with the verb "δοκέω," but I am not sure what the process is for contracting a verb. The book on page 107, second and third sentences, states, "The present-system forms of these verbs have a personal ending preceded by the theme vowel, preceded in turn by the final vowel of the stem. In Attic, as in several other dialects, the final α, ε, or ο of the stem contracts with the theme vowel (or theme vowel plus personal ending, where these have coalesced)."

So when switching from a listed verb to the second or third person or plural ending, do I need to uncontract the listed verb, toss the first-person ending, and then contract the theme vowel with the correct ending?

How do I know just by looking at a verb if it is contracted or not?
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bedwere
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Re: Contract Verbs in--έω

Post by bedwere » Tue Apr 16, 2019 12:34 am

In Attic you need to contract also the first persons:

δοκέω --> δοκῶ
δοκέεις --> δοκεῖς
δοκέει --> δοκεῖ
δοκέομεν --> δοκοῦμεν
δοκέετε --> δοκεῖτε
δοκέουσιν --> δοκοῦσιν

Notice that the accent is circumflex. That could be your tip.

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Re: Contract Verbs in--έω

Post by Lukas » Tue Apr 16, 2019 1:04 am

You have not explained to me what process is being used to get to the contracted vowels. The beginning of the Unit states that there is a vowel at the end of the stem plus a theme vowel plus the ending. That makes three vowels. Yet the word I am working on only has two vowels at the end. Where is the third vowel? Has it been contracted to an ω?

What is the process of going from the first person singular to the plural and to the second and third persons?

Another question: What is the process for an imperative? I am supposed to write, "Like (S.). The word is listed as, "φιλέω." I wrote, "φιλεί," but the answer book wrote, "φίλει." The book says, "If the two original vowels are unaccented, the resulting vowel is unaccented." The problem is, THERE IS a vowel that is accented. How did the accent get moved from the second to first syllable?
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Re: Contract Verbs in--έω

Post by Callisper » Tue Apr 16, 2019 1:14 am

Lukas wrote:
Tue Apr 16, 2019 1:04 am
Another question: What is the process for an imperative? I am supposed to write, "Like (S.). The word is listed as, "φιλέω." I wrote, "φιλεί," but the answer book wrote, "φίλει." The book says, "If the two original vowels are unaccented, the resulting vowel is unaccented." The problem is, THERE IS a vowel that is accented. How did the accent get moved from the second to first syllable?
I leave your other questions to bedwere or others.

Note only that accentuation of verbal forms is recessive (with some exceptions), this rule includes this imperative, and that the imperative is formed out of ε-ε contraction. So φίλε-ε > φίλει.

The 'two original vowels' do not refer to "φιλέω." What sense could that possibly make? They refer to the vowels of the form of the verb pre-contraction. That is φίλεε. The order to do things is: write the morphology; accent according to the recessive rule; only then contract (and apply the corresponding accentuation change). Seems pretty uncomplicated.

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Re: Contract Verbs in--έω

Post by Lukas » Tue Apr 16, 2019 1:18 am

Callisper wrote:
Tue Apr 16, 2019 1:14 am
Lukas wrote:
Tue Apr 16, 2019 1:04 am
Another question: What is the process for an imperative? I am supposed to write, "Like (S.). The word is listed as, "φιλέω." I wrote, "φιλεί," but the answer book wrote, "φίλει." The book says, "If the two original vowels are unaccented, the resulting vowel is unaccented." The problem is, THERE IS a vowel that is accented. How did the accent get moved from the second to first syllable?
I leave your other questions to bedwere or others.

Note only that accentuation of verbal forms is recessive (with some exceptions), this rule includes this imperative, and that the imperative is formed out of ε-ε contraction. So φίλε-ε > φίλει.

The 'two original vowels' do not refer to "φιλέω." What sense could that possibly make? They refer to the vowels of the form of the verb pre-contraction. That is φίλεε. The order to do things is: write the morphology; accent according to the recessive rule; only then contract (and apply the corresponding accentuation change). Seems pretty uncomplicated.
What happened to the accented epsilon?
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Lukas
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Re: Contract Verbs in--έω

Post by Lukas » Tue Apr 16, 2019 1:26 am

Is the ω a contraction of ε and ε? It seems like that would be an ει. Maybe it is a contraction of the final ε plus the ω? What process is being used to get from the original to the contracted form?
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Re: Contract Verbs in--έω

Post by Callisper » Tue Apr 16, 2019 2:37 am

Lukas wrote:
Tue Apr 16, 2019 1:18 am
What happened to the accented epsilon?
I already answered this:

"The order to do things is: write the morphology; accent according to the recessive rule; only then contract (and apply the corresponding accentuation change)."

So first you need the correct, unaccented, uncontracted form. That is φιλεε for the imperative. ("φιλέω" is totally irrelevant once you get past working out how to go from the lemma to the imperative.) Then you need the correct, uncontracted, accented form (as found from the recessive accentuation rule). That is φίλεε for the imperative. Then you need the correct, accented, contracted form, (as found from the contraction rules for both morphology and accentuation). That is φίλει for the imperative (as ε-ε > ει).
Lukas wrote:
Tue Apr 16, 2019 1:26 am
Is the ω a contraction of ε and ε? It seems like that would be an ει. Maybe it is a contraction of the final ε plus the ω? What process is being used to get from the original to the contracted form?
It seems that you don't yet know the contraction rules for morphology. This would be a good time to look them up e.g. 'greek contractions chart' on Google. Then memorize them. Does your book really expect you to just guess around these things?

By the way, is your first-language English?

Lukas
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Re: Contract Verbs in--έω

Post by Lukas » Tue Apr 16, 2019 2:59 am

Yes, my first language is English. My textbook gives a list but confuses me because the book makes it sound like there are three vowels involved but when listing the first person, it only has two vowels at the end. Here is a picture of the first page:
Image

As you can see, the second sentence makes it sound like there are three vowels involved, yet it only lists two vowels with the examples of the first-person. You uncontracted φιλέω to φίλεε. I think now I understand that I can get rid of the accented epsilon, but I am still a little confused as to whether there are two or three vowels at the end of a contracted verb.
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Re: Contract Verbs in--έω

Post by Callisper » Tue Apr 16, 2019 3:07 am

Ah I see. My recommendation is to forget about the 'thematic vowel' and all of that. You learnt the present endings; now you are going to tack on the same present endings to a form which ends in -e,a,o; and then you are going to contract according to the contraction rules given there. It's that simple.

So you should not be thinking in terms of three vowels. There are two parts: a stem and an ending; and here the stem ends in e,a,o, which means that in Attic, after you write the uncontracted form, there will be a contraction between this vowel (e,a,o) and the first vowel of the ending.

The complications we can get into when you are more advanced. This is all you will need for a while.

Lukas
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Re: Contract Verbs in--έω

Post by Lukas » Tue Apr 16, 2019 3:20 am

Χάριν ἔχειν!

I also took your advice about Google and found a video that uncontracted and then contracted φιλέω.
I will be slow and awkward at it for awhile but finally see the steps.

I am glad you are saving the complications. I do not need them for a long time. :wink:
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