Once in philosophy we read a text by an american philosopher, I cannot remember his name, but he said something along the lines of 'evolution is crap because look at wings, how could they evolve? What would a bird with half a wing do?'
So by errors they look like a stick? Probablisticly how many errors does it take for somthing to look like a stick?
Many, but each mutation that brought them closer to stick brought them further away from the birds' plate.
These insects started to look stick like. At first they might have been bright green (only in my example not really), but then the climate changed and so they slowly moved south, as the winters further north were too cold. In their new wood though all the birds would easily see the bright green insects and ate them. One day an insect with a mutation was born. He was not quite as green as the rest, a bit dirty green, and the brids didn't eat him and he had many kids. Another had a mutation that made him very bright green - he eaten straight way. The chances that the brownish ones would be eaten by birds were reduced. Some day on of these now dirty green insects had another mutation with made him even more brown and a bit longer too. And hundred generations later these now brown, long insects had more mutations. Some of them started to grow fat and thin, the others long. The ones that were flat started mating only flat ones that looked like leaves and the other ones only ones that looked like sticks.
As for birds' feathers, each stage in the evolution of the feather, from no more than a bit of fluff to keep some cold dinos warm to something to keep out the rain, to something that helped them glide from tree to tree, to something that allowed them to fly a bit to at last a proper bird, each step had an advantage (or at the very very least not be harmful. It is imaginable that something with out an advantage was passed on, because a trait genetically linked to it did offer an advantage. E.g. the little stick insect that had a colour mutation actually had a mutation that affected his skin and made it wrinkly. Being wrinkly might not have helped him at first, but the browner colour the skin mutation brought with it, did. And later on as another mutation happened and his skin was even wrinklier so that it now really looked like bark, that was an advantage.)
But evolution does not contend that the Laws of Thermodynamics do not apply to biological material, they believe it has been temporarily reversed for the advantage of biological martial. But from what I understand the Law of thermodynamics applies to everything and it basically means the universe is dying, I think.
I don't think they say it has reversed, maybe they don't understand the laws of thermodynamics, but only know that 'everything wants to be more chaotic', which is only sort of correct (a children's lie), but really the law is that when a spontaneous physical process or chemical reaction happens then at the same time the entropy of the whole system increases.
That is why I am saying the law is not reverse, it is likely just not applicable. Pyramid building is not a spontaneous chemical reaction, nor is evolution. What is spontaneous about evolution is probably the copying and the errors that occur when copying the DNA, which allow such mutations as browner and longer insects to occur. And that as I said, does not have to mean that the system has had to counteract thermodynamics, as the chemical process which caused an extra oxygen atom to be added to that molecule instead of a sulphur atom followed the laws of thermodynamics. So when a life form starts to replicate, we are not talking about a spontaneous reaction anymore. Those who say that thermodynamics is just that everything wants to by untidy, know as much about thermodynamics as that philosopher who moaned about wings knows about evolution.
I've not done much on thermodynamics I'm afraid
, we only learned a bit on it during a few chemistry lessons at the beginning of my Abitur to understand why some atoms bind together to form molecules, because with out thermodynamics they wouldn't. And also to understand why some _don't_ form molecules, or only form them if the temperature is high, or pressure there and so on.