§ 459 Review of Gerund(ive), Inf., Subj. I, II Page 193!

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§ 459 Review of Gerund(ive), Inf., Subj. I, II Page 193!

Post by Episcopus » Mon Dec 22, 2003 3:01 pm

Here I am a bit unsure of sequence of tenses, and the imperfect subjunctive as in II. 4. Does is still reflect continuous action there? Must the pluperfect be used for an action finished in the past? I.e "sese abdedissent"? It is different from English isn't it? Anyway,

I. 1. Caesar, cum pervenisset, milites hortabatur ne consilium oppidi capiendi omitterent.
-Caesar, when he (had) arrived, began to encourage the soldiers not to give up the plan of taking the town.

2. Rex, castris prope oppidum positis misit exploratores qui cognoscerent ubi exercitus Romanus esset.
-The king, hacing pitched camp near the town, sent scouts to learn where the Roman army might be.

3. Nemo relinquebatur qui arma ferre posset.
-No one was left behind who could bear arms.

4. Nuntii viderunt ingentem armorum multitudinem de muro in fossam iactam esse.
-The messengers saw that the great multitude of arms had been thrown from the wall into the ditch.

5. Dux suos transire flumen iussit. Transire autem hoc flumen erat difficillimum.
-The leader ordered his men to go across the river. Crossing the river however was very difficult.

6. Romani cum hanc calamitatem moleste ferrent, tamen terga vertere recusaverunt.
-The Romans, although they were annoyed at the defeat, yet they refused the retreat.

7. Hoc rumore audito, tantus terror omnium animos occupavit ut ne fortissimi quidem proelium committere vellent.
-Having heard this rumour, every one's spirits were occupied by such great terror that not even the bravest were willing to join the battle.

8. Erant qui putarent tempus anni idoneum non esse itineri faciendo.
-There were some who thought that the time of year was unsuitable for making a march.

9. Tam acriter ab utraque parte pugnabatur ut multa milia hominum occiderentur.
-So fiercely from each side was the battle fought that many thousands of men were killed.

10. Quid times? Timeo ne Romanis in animo sit totam Galliam superare et nobis iniurias inferre.
-What do you fear? I fear that the Romans intend to overcome the whole of Gauls and inflict injuries upon us.

II. 1. Do you not see who is standing on the wall?
-Nonne vides quis in muro stet?

2. We hear that the plan of taking the town has been given up.
-Audimus consilium oppidi capiendi ommisum esse.

3. Since the Germans thought that the Romans could not cross the Rhine, Caesar ordered a bridge to be made.
-Cum Germani arbitrabantur Romanos non posse Rhenum transire, imperavit Caesar ut fieret pons.
(Could a Gerundive be used to express this in a different way?)

4. When the bridge was finished the savages were so terrified that they hid themselves.
-Pons cum esset factus tam perterriti erant barbari ut sese abderent.
(Am I right in saying that "esset factus" must be as opposed to sit factus as that was before the event of the barbarians hiding?)

5. They feared that Caesar would pursue them.
-Verebantur ne Caesar se insequeretur. (Here evidently "se" refers to the subject, however could this also mean that they feared lest Caesar pursue himself? As the subject of the subordinate...)

6. Caesar asked the traders what the size of the island was.
-Caesar a mercatoribus quaesivit, quae erat insulae magnitudo.

7. The traders advised him not to cross the sea.
-Mercatores eum monuere ne transiret mare.

8. He sent scouts to choose a place for camp.
-Ad locum castris deligendum misit exploratores.

That's the last exercise ever! :cry: I am happy and sad. I love D'Ooge.
Tu es vir ille, cupio ut ipse me docere posses.

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Post by whiteoctave » Mon Dec 22, 2003 3:43 pm

(3) Cum should take the subj.; imperavit would not preceed Caesar!

Cum Germani Romanos non Rhenum transire posse arbitrarentur, Caesar pontem iniciendum (esse) dixit.

(4) pons should be inside the cum clause, it would only precede it if were the subject of the main verb as well as the temporal clause. If you do wish to use cum, sequence of tenses is the daddy, meaning that "were" is the main verb, which introduces historic sequence. Therefore you rightly used the plup subj as the bridge's completion precedes the barbarian terror. Seeing as the sentence also contains a result/consecutive clause, an ablabs would have been better.

barbari tam perterriti ponte perfecto erant ut sese absconderent.

se in (5) strictly could only refer to those fearing, as forms of the reflexive pronoun are meant to always refer to the main verb that governs over any subordinate clause. However, you will see many examples where, in the stronger subordinate clauses, se etc. are introduced as being reflexive to the subordinated subject instead. Ambiguities do arise.

where is the subj in (6)?

in (8) it would have been nice to have castris ad locum deligendum, but i think putting two words between the preposition and the gerund it governs is a bit unlikely.

not bad overall. try a bit of continuous prose.


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Post by Episcopus » Tue Dec 23, 2003 12:57 pm

:oops: Oh my Lord I've been working too hard. I can only ask myself why I put the indicative there since I always use the subjunctive with cum properly...

Thanks for pointing out those mistakes.

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