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Reduplication... .

Posted: Fri Mar 20, 2009 4:18 pm
by David333
Hello,

I've just started to learn Biblical Greek and am currently looking at the reduplication in completed aspect verbs. Our lecturer mentioned different ways of reduplication: adding the initial consonant and e, adding just an e when the verbal stem begins with a vowel/dipthong, an initial sibilant or two initial consonants where the second is a liquid, and something called attic reduplication.

Two questions: is 's' the only sibilant in koine Greek? Secondly, what is attic reduplication?! Thanks in advance for any help... .

Re: Reduplication... .

Posted: Fri Mar 20, 2009 5:20 pm
by RubyJewell
in regards to attic reduplication Mounce page 215, footnote 11 says "ago undergoes what is called 'attic reduplication.' This means that the word both reduplicates and then augments the reduplicated alpha"

Re: Reduplication... .

Posted: Fri Mar 20, 2009 5:21 pm
by IreneY
Hi there!

Yes, "s" is the only sibilant.
Attic reduplication is when some verbs starting with a vowel (α, ε or ο) instead of just "changing" the original vowel to eta or omega, also reduplicate the initial vowel and the next consonant (in other words the first two letters) before the augment.

E.g. ἀκούω would have been *ήκοα but with the attic reduplication it actually becomes ἀκήκοα
ὄμνυμι - * ώμο-κα with the attic reduplication ὀμ-ώμο-κα

Edit: In case your browser is acting up like mine does (doesn't show accented characters unless they have the oxeia, acute accent only) it's
ακούω- ακήκοα
όμνυμι - ομώμοκα

Re: Reduplication... .

Posted: Fri Mar 20, 2009 6:49 pm
by modus.irrealis
David333 wrote:adding just an e when the verbal stem begins with a vowel/dipthong, an initial sibilant or two initial consonants where the second is a liquid
That last should be "two initial consonants other than stop + liquid." So for example γράφω gives γέγραφα, but στέλλω gives ἔσταλκα (there are exceptions though). You could also call ζ a sibilant in Koine Greek but it's usually treated as a double consonant, and falls under that rule either way. Also ρ is treated like a double consonant, e.g. ῥίπτω gives ἔρριφα.

And just in case, the "adding the initial consonant and e" rule needs to be changed for words that begin with φ, θ, or χ, where the initial consonant is deaspirated as in φεύγω gives πέφευγα.

Re: Reduplication... .

Posted: Fri Mar 20, 2009 9:56 pm
by David333
modus.irrealis wrote:
David333 wrote:adding just an e when the verbal stem begins with a vowel/dipthong, an initial sibilant or two initial consonants where the second is a liquid
That last should be "two initial consonants other than stop + liquid." So for example γράφω gives γέγραφα, but στέλλω gives ἔσταλκα (there are exceptions though). You could also call ζ a sibilant in Koine Greek but it's usually treated as a double consonant, and falls under that rule either way. Also ρ is treated like a double consonant, e.g. ῥίπτω gives ἔρριφα.

And just in case, the "adding the initial consonant and e" rule needs to be changed for words that begin with φ, θ, or χ, where the initial consonant is deaspirated as in φεύγω gives πέφευγα.
Thank you for your reply: I wasn't sure how to express the φ, θ, or χ rule but it is on my list of things to learn!

Re: Reduplication... .

Posted: Fri Mar 20, 2009 10:05 pm
by David333
IreneY wrote:Hi there!

Yes, "s" is the only sibilant.
Attic reduplication is when some verbs starting with a vowel (α, ε or ο) instead of just "changing" the original vowel to eta or omega, also reduplicate the initial vowel and the next consonant (in other words the first two letters) before the augment.

E.g. ἀκούω would have been *ήκοα but with the attic reduplication it actually becomes ἀκήκοα
ὄμνυμι - * ώμο-κα with the attic reduplication ὀμ-ώμο-κα

Edit: In case your browser is acting up like mine does (doesn't show accented characters unless they have the oxeia, acute accent only) it's
ακούω- ακήκοα
όμνυμι - ομώμοκα
Thank you Ruby and thanks Irene! I'm really pleased I've found this forum - questions always come up when I'm struggling to force the Greek into my head. We've just finished the principal parts this week, so now I'm trying to sort it all out in my notes. Thank you for the explanation of attic reduplication: is there any list of the 'some verbs' or is it too many to learn...? I guess ακούω is the most common... .