εἰνάτερες in Ω769

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ἑκηβόλος
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εἰνάτερες in Ω769

Post by ἑκηβόλος » Mon Jan 08, 2018 8:29 am

Ω769 wrote:δαέρων ἢ γαλόων ἢ εἰνατέρων εὐπέπλων,
If the singular is ἐνάτηρ, why is the initial epsilon diphthogonalised in the plural to εἰνάτερες?
Thou wast not born for death, immortal Bird!
No hungry generations tread thee down;
The voice I hear this passing night was heard
In ancient days by emperor and clown:
(Keats, Ode to a nightingale, 1819).

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Re: εἰνάτερες in Ω769

Post by Hylander » Mon Jan 08, 2018 3:14 pm

This is a simple one. Again, this is a phenomenon of the Homeric Kunstsprache: a fudge, representing graphically an artificial stretching of the first syllable in performance so that the plural form could be accommodated in the hexameter, which normally excludes sequences of three short syllables.

The Homeric poems are full of similar fudges, where short/light syllables are treated as long/heavy, or sometimes vice versa, to fit the meter, and this is sometimes represented graphically in the spelling, sometimes not.

Cf. Il. 5.31:

Ἆρες Ἄρες βροτολοιγὲ μιαιφόνε τειχεσιπλῆτα

I don't have an answer to your query on δαήρ, which must stretch back into pre-Greek or even PIE. I doubt that if it was originally a suffix rather than a root it would have been perceived as such in the classical era.
Last edited by Hylander on Mon Jan 08, 2018 4:43 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: εἰνάτερες in Ω769

Post by ἑκηβόλος » Mon Jan 08, 2018 4:42 pm

Dis-splelling for a moment the 1am fairies, how I got through three or four courses with Homer without understanding the metre, I don't know, but once more for the καθυστερημένους what is the Homeric metre?
Thou wast not born for death, immortal Bird!
No hungry generations tread thee down;
The voice I hear this passing night was heard
In ancient days by emperor and clown:
(Keats, Ode to a nightingale, 1819).

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Re: εἰνάτερες in Ω769

Post by Hylander » Mon Jan 08, 2018 4:49 pm

The meter is dactylic hexameter. I don't mean to be condescending (and I'm no authority), but if you're going to delve into the history and pre-history of Greek you really need to understand the meter and the formulaic method of composition-in-performance out of which the Homeric poems emerged. These explain many apparently random and puzzling phenomena.

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Re: εἰνάτερες in Ω769

Post by jeidsath » Mon Jan 08, 2018 5:15 pm

Here is Morwood in "A Little Greek Reader" which presents a very straightforward description:

https://imgur.com/a/CMEBK
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Re: εἰνάτερες in Ω769

Post by ἑκηβόλος » Tue Jan 09, 2018 3:03 am

From Morwood,
Μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος (Α1)

Why synizesis of the εω, rather than giving the iota a consonantal value? The resulting scansion appears to be the same.
Thou wast not born for death, immortal Bird!
No hungry generations tread thee down;
The voice I hear this passing night was heard
In ancient days by emperor and clown:
(Keats, Ode to a nightingale, 1819).

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Re: εἰνάτερες in Ω769

Post by Hylander » Tue Jan 09, 2018 1:53 pm

Synizesis of -εω is regular; consonantal treatment of ι is rare.

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Re: εἰνάτερες in Ω769

Post by jeidsath » Tue Jan 09, 2018 2:36 pm

I disagree a bit with Hylander on this one. ηι is often a diphthong, even before a vowel. Perhaps, as Allen claims, the ι is a glide, and therefore a "consonantal," though I think the term isn't really used like that? Regardless, a quick search gives lines like:

A24 ἀλλ’ οὐκ Ἀτρεΐδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονι ἥνδανε θῡμῷ

A143 θείομεν ἂν δ’ αὐτὴν Χρῡσηΐδα καλλιπάρῃον

A better justification for Πηληϊάδεω, I think, is lines like the following.

P381 ἄμβροτοι οὓς Πηλῆϊ θεοὶ δόσαν ἀγλαὰ δῶρα
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Re: εἰνάτερες in Ω769

Post by Hylander » Tue Jan 09, 2018 3:29 pm

A24 ἀλλ’ οὐκ Ἀτρεΐδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονι ἥνδανε θῡμῷ

A143 θείομεν ἂν δ’ αὐτὴν Χρῡσηΐδα καλλιπάρῃον

The second element of the long diphthongs (ι) may have been articulated as a glide, and this probably also accounts for instances of correption of -οι and -αι at word-end before vowels. However, A 24 and 143 are not instances where treating an ι as a consonant is necessary for the scansion. (The hiatus in A24 occurs after the princeps and at the caesura, where it's more acceptable, but perhaps the glide treatment helped.)

The most compelling justification for scanning Πηληϊάδεω as _ _ υ υ _ (note hiatus after princeps) is that εω is always treated as (and was pronounced as) a single (contracted) vowel. See West, Greek Metre, p. 12. (I shouldn't say "always" but I'm not aware of any exceptions.) And Πηληϊάδεω won't scan properly if ι is treated as a consonant and εω is treated as a single vowel.

I'm not aware of any instance where intervocalic ι within a word must be treated as a consonant, but post-consonantal ι sometimes is, usually to accommodate proper names that could not otherwise scan. See West, p. 14.

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Re: εἰνάτερες in Ω769

Post by jeidsath » Tue Jan 09, 2018 4:12 pm

Taking a look, I think that you mean only genitive εω at the end of names (otherwise εω, ερεω, μενεω, θεω, etc.). Among names only obvious exception that I can find is Βορέω:

Ξ395 ποντόθεν ὀρνύμενον πνοιῆι Βορέω ἀλεγεινῆι
Ψ692 ὡς δ’ ὅθ’ ὑπὸ φρικὸς Βορέω ἀναπάλλεται ἰχθύς

But it's not quite a name, so not really an exception, I guess.
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μὴ δ’ οὕτως ἀγαθός περ ἐὼν θεοείκελ’ Ἀχιλλεῦ
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