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Post by daivid » Thu Apr 21, 2016 4:05 pm


There are two kinds :
(a) The supposition may be called ‘particular’ when the conditional clause relates to an act or acts occurring at one particular time or on a certain definite number of occasions, or to a permanent state of things, e.g.:

If he is now present he hears us-—If you have done this
six times, I am pleased—If he is brave he is worthy
of praise.

(b) The supposition may be called ‘ general’ when
an indefinite series of occasions is referred to, e.g.:

“ If ever you have money, you always give it to the poor.”

In (a) the construction in the Protasis in Greek is identical with that in English, i.e. εἰ with the present, or sometimes the perfect, Indicative, e.g.: εἰ νῦν πάρεστιν, ἀκούει - εἰ ταῦτα ἑξάκις πέπραχας, ἥδομαι - εἰ ἀνδρεῖός ἐστιν, ἄξιός ἐστιν ἐπαίνου.

In (b) not εἰ but ἐάν is used, accompanied like all compounds of ἄυ by the Subjunctive mood, e.g.: ἐάν ποτε χρήματα ἔχῃς, δίδως τοῖς πένησιν.

(Note—In such cases the so-called conditional clause is really not conditional but temporal, as is shown by the fact. that instead of saying ‘if ever you have money,’ or ἐὰν χρήματα ἔχῃς, we can say with identical meaning, ‘ whenever you have money,’ ὅταν χρήματα ἔχῃς’.)

In both (a) and b) the Apodosis presents no difficulty, and is to be translated into Greek just as if no conditional clause accompanied it.

Distinguish then in Exercises I. A and B between:

Present Particular conditionals.
and Present General conditionals.

I. A.

1. Εἰ βούλει ἀνδρεῖος δοκεῖν, μὴ φοβηθῇς ἐκεῖνον τὸν κύνα.
2. Ἐάν τις τοιαῦτα φῇ ψεύστης ἐστὶν, ἢ οὐδὲν οἶδε περὶ τούτων.
3. (a) Εἰ μὴ ἀλγεῖς τὴν κεφαλὴν, ὦ γύναι, μὴ μεταπέμψῃ τὸν ἰατρόν.
(b) Ἐὰν μὴ ἀλγῇς τὴν κεφαλὴν, μὴ μεταπέμπου τὸν ἰατρόν.
4. Πάντες οἱ τοιαῦτα πράττοντες, ἐὰν ἁλῶσι, δίκην δωσουσιν· ἀλλ’ εἴ τις νῦν τοῦτο πράττειν βούλεται, οἱ στρατηγοὶ οὐκ εἴσονται ὅστις ἐστίν.
5. Ἐάν τις μὴ πάντα τὰ ἑαυτοῦ διδῷ τῷ βασιλεῖ, οὐκ ἐπαινεῖται.
6. Εἰ δίκαιος κριτὴς εἷ, μὴ παραβῇς τοὺς τῆς πόλεως νόμους.
7. Ἐὰν ἐθέλῃς τοῖς πένησιν ἀρέσκειν, μὴ τοὺς πλουσίους ὠφέλει.
8. Εἰ ἐθέλεις ἐμοὶ ἀρέσκειν, εὖ ποίησον τοὺς σοὺς δούλους.
9. Εἰ μὴ οἱ φιλόσοφοι ταῦθ’ ἡμῖν δοῦναι ἐθέλουσιν, οὐκ ἄριστοι εἰσιν ἀλλ’ αἴσχιστοι.
10. Τοῦτον οὖν λαβὼν ἀπόκτεινον, εἰ μὴ ἀποπέφευγεν ἤδη.
11. Κακῶς πεποίηκας, εἰ πάντα τὸν οἶνον πέπωκας.
12. Ἐάν τις πολὺν οἶνον πίνῃ, πολλάκις ἀλγεῖ τοὺς πόδας.
13. Οὐ χρὴ φάναι ὅπου ἐστὶν ἐκεῖνος, εἰ μὴ κεκέλευκεν ὁ δεσπότης.
14. Μὴ ταῦτα τοῖς κακοῖς ἐκείνοις ὑπηρετήσῃς, εἰ βούλει ὑφ’ ἡμῶν τιμᾶσθαι.
15. Εἰ ἡμεῖς γιγνώσκομεν τὴν μητέρα, ὑμεῖς γιγνώσκετε τὴν θυγατέρα.
16. Εἰ τοὺς στρατιώτας ἐπαινεῖ, μῶρός ἐστιν.
17. Ἐάν ποτε τοῖς στρατιώταις μέμφηται, οὐ πείθονται αὐτῷ.
18. Οὐ δύνασαι τοιαῦτα πράττειν, εἰ μὴ μεμάθηκας.
19. Οὐ ταῦτα πεποίηκας, εἰ ἀληθεύει ὁ φύλαξ.
20. Ἐάν τε βούλωνται, ἐάν τε μή, ἀεὶ αὐτοὺς ἐπαινεῖ.

I. B.

1. If we never disobey the laws, they are not painful to us.
2. If you are deceiving me, you are acting disgracefully.
3. If you deceive a benefactor, you do not please the gods.
4. If this is so, it is useless for us to fight the enemy.
5. These nations are not brave, unless they drink much wine.
6. If the wise are ignorant about anything, who can find out the truth?
7. If you ever see a wolf, run away as fast as possible;
8. If you see the enemy approaching, Cyrus is dead.
9. If you are-thirsty, drink this wine.
10. Never drink water if you have wine.
11. We ought to give 5 talents to the poor, if they are really faring very badly in Athens.
12. If you wish to be honored by us, do not help those
13. If they have killed the large dog, why do you not enter the house ?
14. No-one praises a man, if he abuses his parents.
15. Put Socrates to death, if he is really corrupting the young men.
16. If he is always doing this, I do not think him wise.
17. If you have not killed the king, you have not obeyed me.
18. How can you know Plato, if you have never stayed in Athens ?
19. If what you say is true, you have not acted justly.
20. If any of the philosophers are now absent, I do not blame them.

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Post by daivid » Fri Apr 22, 2016 8:12 pm




Exactly the same distinction is found in Past time as in Present between (a) Particular, and (b) General suppositions, e.g.:

(a) If he saw Cyrus, he killed him.
(b) If ever he saw a soldier, he used to kill him.

Here again, as in present time, the general supposition is really a temporal clause, equivalent to ‘whenever etc.'

Greek Construction

(a)- Particular.—As in English the past tenses of the Indicative in both clauses, viz : the Imperfect or Aorist according as the action is a continued or momentary one, or the Pluperfect.

(b) General.- εἰ with the Optative in the Protasis and the Imperfect in the Apodosis.

1) εἰ εἶδε Κῦρον, ἀπέκτεινεν.

2) εἰ ἤλαυνεν (if he was riding), ἔιδον αὐτόν.

3, εἰ ταῦτα ἤδη ἐπεποιήκει, τι ἐπάταξας ;
(If he had already done this, why did you strike him ?)

(B) εἴ ποτε στρατιώτην ἴδωμι, ἀπέκτεινον.


1. Εἰ ταῦτα ἴδοιεν, εὐθὺς ἔλεγον τοῖς στρατιώταις, ἵνα μη ὑπὸ τῶν πολεμίων ἀπατῷντο.
2. Εἰ ταῦτα ᾖστε, τί οὐκ εἴπατε ἡμῖν τοῖς ὑμετέροις φίλοις;
3. Εἴ ποτε τοὺς φιλοσόφους ἀπατᾶν δύναιντο, ἔφην αὐτοὺς σοφωτάτους εἶναι.
4. Εἰ τότε ταῦτα ἠκούσθη ὑπὸ σοῦ, ἐδέησεν ἐμοὶ φάναι.
5. Ἡδόμην εἰ οἱ ταῦτά σοι ὑπηρετήσαντες δίκην διδοῖεν.
6. Εἰ μὴ τότε οἶνον εἶχες, ἔδει σε μεταπέμψασθαι τὸν ἰατρόν.
7. Εἰ στρατηιγοίην οὐκ ἔτεμνον τὴν τῶν Ἐρετριῶν.
8. Εἰ ὁ στρατηγὸς τότε ἤλαυνε καὶ σὺ παρῆσθα, πῶς οὐκ εἶδες;
9. Εἰ οἱ στρατιῶται ἀποκτείνοιεν τὰς ὄρνεις, ἤχθετο ἡ γυνή.
10. Εἰ φαῖμεν ταῦτα, ὁ φύλαξ ἀεὶ ἐκόλαζε.
11. Οἱ στρατηγοὶ κακῶς ἐποίουν ἡμᾶς, εἴ ποτε μὴ τιμηθεῖεν.
12. ’Έδει σ’ εἰδέναι τὰ ὑπὸ τούτων ῥηθέντα, εἰ στρατηγὸς·εἶναι ἔφησθα.
13. Εἰ ήπάτησε Κῦρον, ἠπατήθη καὶ αὐτὸς ὑπὸ τῶν τοῦ Κύρου στρατηγῶν.
14. Ἀεὶ παῖς ὢν ἐπῃνούμην, εἰ τὸ ἐπ’ ἐμοὶ πράττοιμι.
15. Εἰ μὴ χρήματα τότε ἔδωκε τοῖς οὕτω πράττουσιν, αἴσχιστος ἐγένετο.
16. Εἰ τριά ἔτη ἐστρατήγει, εὖ ἔπραττεν ἡ πόλις.
17. Εἴ ποτε στρατηγοιήν, ἐνίκων τοὺς πολεμίους.
18. Εἰ ταῦτ ἤδη ἑωράκει, τί οὐκ ἀπῆλθεν ὡς τάχιστα ;
19. Εἰ Κῦρος τότε παρεγένετο, ἤδη διεφθάρκει τοὺς πολεμιόυς.
20. Οὐ σοφός ἦσθα, εἰ μὴ ἐπαινοίης τοὺς ἄρχοντας.

1. If Cyrus said this, he did not tell-the-truth.
2. If the king praised him, he used to be delighted.
3. If he was doing this in my presence (genitive absol.), I nevertheless did not see him.
4. Nobody spoke well of the soldiers, if they burnt the houses of the citizens.
5. If you were present, why did you not give money to the poor?
6. If the man was put to death, the judges decided unjustly.
7. In the time of the Persians, if any man told-a-lie he was put to death.
8. If you did not strike the man, somebody else did.
9. If they had already done this, you ought to have told me.
10. If he incurred such dangers for eight months, he was very brave. ‘
11. The Greeks always won, if they fought the Persians.
12. If they said this seven times, they were most barefaced liars.
13. I never punish any one if he does his best; nor were you punished then, if I was the general.
14. If I had the toothache I always sent for the doctor myself; but if he came yesterday, Cyrus sent him to me.
15. If he was alive in the time of Socrates, he often saw Plato also.
16. If he had deceived me, he had acted very bravely.
17. If he was doing that, he had been deceived by the king.
18. If the soldier ever stole a horse, he was punished.
19. If any one saw him, let him tell the general.
20. If Xerxes marched anywhere, the inhabitants fled from their houses.

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