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JWW exercises, para 390, 392, 397, 399, 410, 412

Posted: Mon Jun 07, 2004 1:39 am
by Koala
some suggested translations

1 how should I make the battle/engagement?
2 if I should hear the name of this man, I should/would avenge myself (on him)
3 there was a danger that the satrap would/might molest/annoy the Greeks
4 if the Greeks should conquer the barbarians, it would be well
5 therefore I would not wonder if the enemy should try to follow them
6 they were all afraid that Clearchus might take vengeance-on/punish the soldiers
7 if we should have arms, we would use courage also
8 they were afraid that he would no longer lead the army (as a guide, not as a commander or leader)
9 if the guards should be defeated, they would not be saved
10 he would perhaps hire these mercenaries, if they should proceed to the province

Proceeding/marching through this country they arrive at the river Mascas. Here there was a deserted city, (on the other hand the) name for it (was) Corsote ? around it flows the river in a circle/the river curved around it. There they furnished themselves with food/took in provisions. From there he marches on, thirteen desert(ed) stages, ninety parasangs, with (having) the river Euphrates on his right, and arrives at The Gates. In these daily marches (stages), many of the animals perished from hunger, for there was neither grass nor tree, but the whole country was bare/without trees.

1 Cyrus also had triremes
2 the breadth of this river is five plethra
3 and he ordered Clearchus to lead the right wing (as a commander)
4 the army of Menon was already in the land/country within the mountains
5 all were armed with breastplates and helmets
6 from there they proceeded to a desert wall/fort
7 Xenophon sent the letter to Socrates
8 the soldiers were lacking grain, yet they had meat
9 these were forts, and the one had a Cilician garrison, the other, it was said, (had) a garrison of Artaxerxes to guard (it).
10 when they were at the gates of Tissaphernes, the generals were exhorted/invited inside

The men in this place (were) living by digging up and fashioning upper millstones by the river, taking (them) to Babylon and selling and exchanging for grain. The army was lacking grain and it was not possible to buy (some for itself) except in the market-place of Lydia, (with)in the Persian force of Cyrus. And grain was costly/expensive ? therefore the soldiers ate meat. Many of these marches that Cyrus was making (were) very long, for it was often necessary to proceed a long way to food.

1 (O) Clearchus, do not lead the army on the mountains
2 do not do these things, O Socrates
3 be friends of (to) Cyrus rather than his brother
4 do not teach the child to do harm
5 don?t hurry with-all-your-might/rush-headlong down from the hill
6 at day break let them send two messengers to the fort
7 hurry, O Persians, and bring/get your/the wagons out of the mud
8 send a part of the barbarian/native army over/to the bridge
9 summon/exhort, as it were in anger, the Persians inside
10 and conduct the leaders to the middle ? let the herald be present

And indeed when in (a place that was) narrow and muddy and difficult for the wagons to pass, Cyrus ordered two of the Persian leaders to get (some men) from the native/barbarian army to help bring out the wagons. Since they appeared to him to do (things) slowly, he ordered - as if in anger/looking angry - the noble and brave Persians in his company to help hurry on the wagons. Then indeed one saw a bit of discipline (some good order was to be seen).


Posted: Tue Jul 13, 2004 12:24 pm
by Skylax
390 – ok, but in No 8, because of the use of the dative στρατεύματι, « lead » must be understood as « lead as a guide », not « as a leader » or « a commander ».


(the) name of it (being) Corsote : yes, but the verb implied is another indicative [lit :] « on the other hand the name (was) for it Corsote »
flowed : flows (Xenophon consideres the river is still flowing when he writes the story, hence the present)


3. cf 390, 8 : here, the genitive κέρως implies that Clearchus leads « as a commander ».
6. « there » : rather « from there »
10. « exhorted » : yes if it can mean « were called, were invited » to enter Tissaphernes’ tent. In fact, Tissaphernes will kill the generals inside.


« precious » : say « costly, expensive ». By the way, we see here that meat is a « second choice » food, and seemingly cheaper than grain. It is surprising (at least for me), but I have read about the Romans that meat was considered an inadequate food for soldiers for it should weaken spirit and courage. Unfortunately, I have got no references to ancient sources.


6. Literally « let them send two messengers »

412 – ok