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adverb vs adjective

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adverb vs adjective

Postby Bert » Sun Nov 16, 2003 2:25 am

I have noticed several times that Greek uses an adjective while it has to be translated as an adverb.
I assumed that the Greek adjective then functions as an adverb. According to the note on line 77 of the Iliad in Pharr, this is not the case.
Line 77 reads as follows: [face=SPIonic]h)= me/n moi pro/frwn e)/pesin kai\ xersi\n a)rh/cein.[/face]
The note reads; "observe that the Greek uses the adjective where the English idiom would ordinarily prefer the adverb."
If [face=Arial][/face][face=SPIonic]pro/frwn[/face] is functioning as an adjective, what is the noun it is modifying? It can't be "words" or "hands" because they are both plural.
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Postby Bert » Sun Nov 16, 2003 2:30 am

I just thought of a possibility. [face=SPIonic]a)ph/cein[/face] is a verbal noun. Is this the noun that goes with 'eager', Something like 'give eager help'?
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Re: adverb vs adjective

Postby Paul » Sun Nov 16, 2003 2:56 am

Hi,

Bert wrote:I assumed that the Greek adjective then functions as an adverb.


You're quite right. See Pharr 780, 781.

And the future infinitive [face=SPIonic]a)rh/cein[/face] is the verb modified by the adverb [face=SPIonic]pro/frwn[/face] (an adjective used adverbially).

[face=SPIonic]pro/frwn[/face] ... [face=SPIonic]a)rh/cein[/face]. Literally, "(to intend) to help with heart forward". ("eagerly", that is).


Cordially,

Paul
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Re: adverb vs adjective

Postby annis » Sun Nov 16, 2003 3:26 am

Bert wrote:I have noticed several times that Greek uses an adjective while it has to be translated as an adverb.


This is a matter of idiom, translating by sense rather than by exact words. For example...

Line 77 reads as follows: [face=SPIonic]h)= me/n moi pro/frwn e)/pesin kai\ xersi\n a)rh/cein.[/face]
The note reads; "observe that the Greek uses the adjective where the English idiom would ordinarily prefer the adverb."
If [face=Arial][/face][face=SPIonic]pro/frwn[/face] is functioning as an adjective, what is the noun it is modifying? It can't be "words" or "hands" because they are both plural.


It's in the nominative, so it is modifying the subject of the verb, which happens not to be stated explicitly in this line.

Normally we don't say in English, "zealous he helps me" where zealous is modifying "he." Instead English prefers an adverb in this situation.

This shouldn't be confused with neuter sing. or pl. forms often used to make adverbs from pronouns and adjectives (Pharr sec. 781).
William S. Annis — http://www.aoidoi.org/http://www.scholiastae.org/
τίς πατέρ' αἰνήσει εἰ μὴ κακοδαίμονες υἱοί;
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Re: adverb vs adjective

Postby Paul » Sun Nov 16, 2003 4:29 am

annis wrote:This shouldn't be confused with neuter sing. or pl. forms often used to make adverbs from pronouns and adjectives (Pharr sec. 781).


Right you are. [face=SPIonic]pro/frwn[/face] is in the nominative. A hasty error on my part.

Perhaps a construction that treats it as a predicate, e.g., "be eager to help...", suffices to emphasize its adjectival quality.

Cordially,

Paul
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Re: adverb vs adjective

Postby Skylax » Sun Nov 16, 2003 10:46 am

Paul wrote:Perhaps a construction that treats it as a predicate, e.g., "be eager to help...", suffices to emphasize its adjectival quality.


It is so. E.g. Theognis, v. 69
[face=SPIonic]Mh/pote, Ku/rne, kakw=| pi/sunoj bou/leue su\n a)ndri/[/face]
"Never confidently - i.e. "(while you are) confident" - take counsel with a base man, Cyrnus" (cf. Goold's translation - Loeb)

It happens frequently also in Latin.

Tacitus, Agricola, 33 : Excepere orationem alacres (scil. Calgaci Britanni ducis milites) : "They received his speech with enthusiasm" (Translation Church-Brodribb, Perseus), i. e. "They were enthusiastic when they received his speech."
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Re: adverb vs adjective

Postby dani67 » Wed Jun 02, 2010 4:28 pm

An adjective describes a noun.
The Cherry was red.
The girl is beautiful.

Adverb describes a verb.
Lily ran slowly.
Gili chewed slowly.
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Re: adverb vs adjective

Postby furrykef » Fri Jun 04, 2010 3:23 pm

dani67 wrote:Adverb describes a verb.

Or an adjective, or another adverb, or an entire phrase... (I dunno about Greek, as I don't know any of it, but adverbs can certainly do these in any other language I study, including Latin and even Japanese!)

The movie was very good. -- modifying an adjective
He ran really fast. -- modifying another adverb
Clearly, this is a problem. -- entire sentence (this usage in English is condemned by an increasingly small number of grammarians)
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