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Translating Latin into Greek: quoque --> ?

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Translating Latin into Greek: quoque --> ?

Postby gfross » Wed May 18, 2011 10:13 am

I am currently reviewing Latin by going through Hans H. Ørberg's book Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata. Since I am also reviewing non-Modern Greek (classical and ecclesiastical), I thought it would be fun to translate his simple sentences into Greek (preferably classical, but for some more modern proper nouns (like Gaul) Hellenistic or Byzantine will do).

My question here concerns the translation of quoque, "also". Here is a typical example of the context in which quoque occurs:

Italia et Graecia in Europa sunt. Hispania quoque in Europa est. (To speed things up, I've left out the macrons.)

Here's my attempt at translating into Greek:

Ἡ Ἰταλία καὶ ἡ Ἑλλάς εισιν ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ. Ἡ Ἰβερία καί ἐν τῆ Εὐρώπῃ ἐστιν.

Comments? Corrections? Suggestions?
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Re: Translating Latin into Greek: quoque --> ?

Postby NateD26 » Wed May 18, 2011 9:41 pm

I guess in such a sentence, the placement of καί is not that critical.
[Note: only the first letter of a paragraph is usually capitalized.]

ἡ Ἰβερία καὶ ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ ἐστίν or καὶ ἡ Ἰβερία ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ ἐστίν will do,
with the emphasized part in the former being the continent, and in the latter, the country.

I think it'd be more common to find examples of the latter though.
Nate.
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Re: Translating Latin into Greek: quoque --> ?

Postby gfross » Thu May 19, 2011 10:41 am

Thank you for your helpful and prompt reply! Actually, your reply taught me several things:

1. That a proclitic (e.g., ἐν) does not act like an enclitic (e.g., ἐστίν) with regard to governing the accent on the syllable immediately preceding the proclitic. Thus it is not καί ἐν, but καὶ ἐν that is correct.

2. That if a word with an acute accent on its penult precedes an enclitic (Eὐρώπῃ ἐστίν), the enclitic is accented.

3. That καί can function as the first word of a sentence in the meaning of an "also" that modifies the following word or phrase. My concern was that καί in this position would normally be interpreted as "and". Hmm, perhaps to avoid ambiguity, one could rewrite the sentence as ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ καὶ ἡ Ἰβερία ἐστίν.

I think I may hold off on translating Latin into Greek for the time being. I need lots more training in Greek particles and articles. My attempts at this kind of translation have caused me to become much more aware of the use of particles and articles and of the word order of Greek sentences. Particles and word order often appear to be a matter of style, not grammar. Greek seems to be extremely nuanced in its expression, much more so than Latin. Anyway, thanks again for your help!
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