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Like to Start New Group

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Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Wed Sep 02, 2009 9:21 pm

I'd be interested in starting a new group to study White's First Greek Book and excerpts of Xenophon's Anabasis, with a slightly novel approach. I'd like to supplement the translation exercises in White with other exercises, and place more emphasis on reading and understanding Greek than on translation. The online exercises for Athenaze (http://web.uvic.ca/hrd/greek/) at the University of Victoria using the software "Hot Potatoes" from the same University(http://hotpot.uvic.ca/) gave me the idea of creating our own exercises to help master the material with less tedious memorization of paradigms and vocabulary lists and avoiding the translation mentality. I also use Athenaze and Reading Greek (and I'd welcome study partners for those texts, as well.) But the fact that the White and Xenophon texts are in the public domain means we could use passages of Xenophon (either from the original, or from White's simplified version) for sentence gap exercises, matching, finding or highlighting or copying words or examples of grammatical forms under study, answering comprehension assessment questions, etc. Of course, we could also do other things: link to other sites (for instance, the imperfect and aorist tenses are introduced very briefly in White, with far too little practice with them), record audio files, and bring in excerpts from other texts (for example, the Septuagint) to illustrate usage.

I'm willing to put in the work to organize the group and to try to get some online exercises using Hot Potoates up and running. Not having an advanced level of expertise in Greek (I'm at about Lesson 30 in White and I'm just reaching the point now of being able to read and understand Xenophon), myself, we would greatly benefit from more advanced students of Greek here on Textkit.

What do others think? Is this much more difficult than I imagine? Or is there too little interest in an old book like White to get a study group started?

Lee
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Bert » Wed Sep 02, 2009 11:24 pm

There was a White group a number of years back and it was quite enjoyable.
I am not able to participate this time but what you are proposing sounds like a very good way to do it.
I hope you can get enough interested people.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Mon Sep 14, 2009 4:12 pm

Thanks, Bert. I also hope this will spark some interest.

Lee
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby NateD26 » Tue Sep 15, 2009 7:48 am

Hi. I think creating the exercises yourself via Hot Potatoes is the better way to go.
I've just checked one of their early exercises of Athenaze and it has accentuation problems:

http://web.uvic.ca/hrd/greek/grammar/ch ... ce_gap.htm

The farmer is not speaking: ὁ .......... οὐ λέγει. the answer is αὐτουργὸς with grave
but they marked it as wrong and upon clicking the 'hint', I got it with an acute!

also in the 2nd sentence, after οἶκος there's ἐστι but it didn't throw its accent on the u. of οἶκος
as it should have: οἶκός ἐστι...

I realize that's neat-peaking but hey, I'm just saying. :)

I'd be happy to share with you some passages I write with the new vocabulary of each chapter (I'm only in chapter 2 but I'll get to the end soon enough :) ). It gives me the ability to review new vocabularies, pay close attention to grammar, and actually come up with a story on my own, however simple and uninteresting it may be.
Nate.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Tue Sep 15, 2009 6:29 pm

I discovered an error in one of the online Athenaze exercises myself a few months back. I suppose that's the downside of language learners composing their own Greek sentences. But I agree that it's a useful exercise, since, for one thing, I would like as much reading practice as possible with the White's vocabulary and constructions (I recently heard the figure of 16 times tossed around as the number of repetitions needed to learn something--I don't know where the figure comes from), and since Xenophon and White are no longer accepting writing gigs.

So please do share your compositions (and glad to have you in the now-emerging group!).
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Wed Sep 16, 2009 10:10 pm

Prometheus, are you trying to lure my new study partner away?! :p

No, but seriously, I'd be interested in an informal group (my time table is generally full full full lately) that works its way through White's text. I don't know what I could do as far as the Xenophon reading, but I'd give it a stab and see if I didn't completely suck at it. This will be my first time working through such a text, since I haven't studied Greek steadily since 2001. Lately I've devoted a lot more thought and energy to it, since I received my copy of Athenaze in the mail. Until now all I've had is three years of κοινή in college and almost nothing since. I started up with the Homeric group, but the pace soon found me floundering.

We can definitely not do more than one lesson per week! :lol:
Jason Hare
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ὁ μὲν Παῦλος τοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις μαθητὰς τὴν χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἐδίδασκεν, οἱ δ᾿ ἄλλοι ἀπόστολοι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐδίδασκον τηρεῖν τὸν θεῖον νόμον τὸν χειρὶ Μωϋσέως δοθέντα.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Thu Sep 17, 2009 4:08 pm

I think a good starting point would be the reading passage from White's First Greek Book on p. 31, Lesson 13, #25, under the heading "The Parentage, Race, and Power of Cyrus the Younger". (I was disappointed that I couldn't copy and paste the text into here--can anyone advise?)

The text can be approached at several levels:
1. For an absolute beginner: find and highlight upper case letters, then vowel letters, listed in Lesson 1. Try to guess the proper names mentioned.
2. For beginners already familiar with the Greek aphabet: look for, highlight, and read aloud words listed in the vocabularies up to, and including Lesson 13.
3. For more advanced beginners: identify phrases or whole sentences that you can understand, or guess the meaning of (highlight them).
4. Answer in English (easier) or in Greek (more advanced) the following questions:
a. Who was Cyrus?
b. What territories was Cyrus made satrap over?
c. What military resources did Cyrus have at his disposal, on land and sea? Did they include Greek hoplites, or only Persian soldiers?
d. Who was Tissaphernes? Why did he fear Cyrus?
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Thu Sep 17, 2009 8:17 pm

Unless and until someone suggests an easy way to enter text from White's book, let's start with a bit of the "real thing". Here are the opening lines of Xenophon's Anabasis Kyrou ('The Ascent of Cyrus'):

Ξενοφώντος
Κύρου Ἀνάβασις

Βιβλίον Α
[1.1.1] Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο, πρεσβύτερος μὲν Ἀρταξέρξης, νεώτερος δὲ Κῦρος· ἐπεὶ δὲ ἠσθένει Δαρεῖος καὶ ὑπώπτευε τελευτὴν τοῦ βίου, ἐβούλετο τὼ παῖδε ἀμφοτέρω παρεῖναι. [1.1.2] ὁ μὲν οὖν πρεσβύτερος παρὼν ἐτύγχανε· Κῦρον δὲ μεταπέμπεται ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἧς αὐτὸν σατράπην ἐποίησε, καὶ στρατηγὸν δὲ αὐτὸν ἀπέδειξε πάντων ὅσοι ἐς Καστωλοῦ πεδίον ἁθροίζονται. ἀναβαίνει οὖν ὁ Κῦρος λαβὼν Τισσαφέρνην ὡς φίλον, καὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἔχων ὁπλίτας ἀνέβη τριακοσίους, ἄρχοντα δὲ αὐτῶν Ξενίαν Παρράσιον. [1.1.3] ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτησε Δαρεῖος καὶ κατέστη εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν Ἀρταξέρξης, Τισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει τὸν Κῦρον πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν ὡς ἐπιβουλεύοι αὐτῷ. ὁ δὲ πείθεται καὶ συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον ὡς ἀποκτενῶν· ἡ δὲ μήτηρ ἐξαιτησαμένη αὐτὸν ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν. [1.1.4] ὁ δ᾽ ὡς ἀπῆλθε κινδυνεύσας καὶ ἀτιμασθείς, βουλεύεται ὅπως μήποτε ἔτι ἔσται ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, ἀλλά, ἢν δύνηται, βασιλεύσει ἀντ᾽ ἐκείνου. Παρύσατις μὲν δὴ ἡ μήτηρ ὑπῆρχε τῷ Κύρῳ, φιλοῦσα αὐτὸν μᾶλλον ἢ τὸν βασιλεύοντα Ἀρταξέρξην.

Questions:
(Beginners)
1. Try to identify the following capitalized names: Xenophon, Cyrus, Darius, Parysatis, Artaxerxes, Tissaphernes, Anabasis, Xenia Parrasion, Kastolou,

2. Find, highlight, and read aloud according to the instructions in the first lesson of White the following words of one, two, or three letters: O, H,TON, MEN, KAI, TOY, OYN, δὲ, τὼ, ἐς, ἢν, δύο, ἐπὶ, ἀπὸ, εἰς, τὴν, ἔτι.

3. Some important relationship words are listed below (in the forms in which they appear in the text). Read them aloud and highlight them in the text.

mother μήτηρ
children παῖδες, παῖδε
brother ἀδελφὸν, ἀδελφῷ
friend φίλον

4. True or false:
[list=]Παρύσατις μήτηρ τοῦ Κύρου.
Κῦρος καὶ Ἀρταξέρξης παῖδες τοῦ Δαρείου.
Ἀρταξέρξης ἀδελφος τοῦ Κύρου.
ὁ μὲν Ἀρταξέρξης πρεσβύτερος, ὁ δὲ Κῦρος νεώτερος·
Τισσαφέρνης φίλος τοῦ Δαρείου.[/list]

5. Can you guess which words mean satrap, hoplites, Hellenes?

6. Which word in the first sentence is likely to mean "life" (cf. "biology")? Which "two" ("duo"), which "younger" ("new", "neo-")? Which word in the second sentence is likely to mean "general" ("strategist")?

(More advanced)
7. Put in the correct case forms of the masculine noun Κῦρος (Cyrus):

[1.1.1] Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο, πρεσβύτερος μὲν Ἀρταξέρξης, νεώτερος δὲ_________ἐπεὶ δὲ ἠσθένει Δαρεῖος καὶ ὑπώπτευε τελευτὴν τοῦ βίου, ἐβούλετο τὼ παῖδε ἀμφοτέρω παρεῖναι. [1.1.2] ὁ μὲν οὖν πρεσβύτερος παρὼν ἐτύγχανε·___________δὲ μεταπέμπεται ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἧς αὐτὸν σατράπην ἐποίησε, καὶ στρατηγὸν δὲ αὐτὸν ἀπέδειξε πάντων ὅσοι ἐς Καστωλοῦ πεδίον ἁθροίζονται. ἀναβαίνει οὖν ὁ __________ λαβὼν Τισσαφέρνην ὡς φίλον, καὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἔχων ὁπλίτας ἀνέβη τριακοσίους, ἄρχοντα δὲ αὐτῶν Ξενίαν Παρράσιον. [1.1.3] ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτησε Δαρεῖος καὶ κατέστη εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν Ἀρταξέρξης, Τισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει τὸν __________πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν ὡς ἐπιβουλεύοι αὐτῷ. ὁ δὲ πείθεται καὶ συλλαμβάνει _______ὡς ἀποκτενῶν· ἡ δὲ μήτηρ ἐξαιτησαμένη αὐτὸν ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν. [1.1.4] ὁ δ᾽ ὡς ἀπῆλθε κινδυνεύσας καὶ ἀτιμασθείς, βουλεύεται ὅπως μήποτε ἔτι ἔσται ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, ἀλλά, ἢν δύνηται, βασιλεύσει ἀντ᾽ ἐκείνου. Παρύσατις μὲν δὴ ἡ μήτηρ ὑπῆρχε τῷ __________, φιλοῦσα αὐτὸν μᾶλλον ἢ τὸν βασιλεύοντα Ἀρταξέρξην.

8. Match the following verbs with their translations:

[list=]γίγνονται
ἐ-βούλετο
παρ-εῖναι
ἐποίησε
ἀνα-βαίνει
ἀπο-πέμπει
πείθεται
βασιλεύσει
ἀπ-ῆλθε
φιλοῦσα
δύνηται[/list]

[list=]to be present
sends away
went away
goes up
wanted
convinces
made
loved
to be king
was possible
beget, have (children)[/list]
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Tue Sep 22, 2009 10:41 pm

Just FYI - NateD26 and I are working First Greek Book from the earlier parts on my forum here: http://www.jhronline.com/forum/forumdisplay.php?fid=17. You're welcome to come and join us, too. We've got an Athenaze group going now. We're in the second chapter of Athenaze (going into the third this week) and around section 50 of FGB, about where the present tense begins.
Jason Hare
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ὁ μὲν Παῦλος τοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις μαθητὰς τὴν χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἐδίδασκεν, οἱ δ᾿ ἄλλοι ἀπόστολοι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐδίδασκον τηρεῖν τὸν θεῖον νόμον τὸν χειρὶ Μωϋσέως δοθέντα.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Tue Sep 22, 2009 10:44 pm

Prometheus,

Your posts and questions are fantastic (WOW!), but I think they're over my head right now. I need to work into things by review and practice. I'll take a look at all your amazing work, but I don't know what I can and cannot answer at this point.

Jason

P.S. I'm a quick typist. I can type up the text from FGB for passage discussion, if you want.
Jason Hare
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ὁ μὲν Παῦλος τοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις μαθητὰς τὴν χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἐδίδασκεν, οἱ δ᾿ ἄλλοι ἀπόστολοι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐδίδασκον τηρεῖν τὸν θεῖον νόμον τὸν χειρὶ Μωϋσέως δοθέντα.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Tue Sep 22, 2009 11:07 pm

Here's that text (I checked it and had NateD check it for typos):

Κῦρος, ὁ τοῦ Δαρείου υἱός, Πέρσης ἦν καλὸς καὶ ἀγαθός. σατράπην δὲ αὐτὸν ἐποίησεν ὁ Δαρεῖος τῆς Λυδίας καὶ τῆς Φρυγίας καὶ τῆς Καππαδοκίας.

χωρία δὲ ἰσχυρὰ εἶχεν ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ ὁ Κῦρος καὶ πλοῖα μακρὰ ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ, καὶ στρατιῶται δὲ αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ ἦσαν ἀγαθοί, ὁπλῖται Ἑλληνικοὶ καὶ πελτασταὶ καὶ τοξόται Περσικοί.

Τισσαφέρνης δέ, ὁ τῆς Καρίας σατράπης, τῷ Κύρῳ πολέμιος ἦν, τότε δὲ οὔτε ἐστράτευεν ἐπ᾿ αὐτὸν οὔτε διήρπαζε τὴν χώραν. Κῦρος γὰρ στρατηγὸς ἐν πολέμῳ δεινὸς ἦν, υἱὸς δὲ τοῦ Δαρείου· ὥστε φόβον εἶχεν ὁ Τισσαφέρνης πρὸς Κῦρον.
Jason Hare
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ὁ μὲν Παῦλος τοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις μαθητὰς τὴν χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἐδίδασκεν, οἱ δ᾿ ἄλλοι ἀπόστολοι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐδίδασκον τηρεῖν τὸν θεῖον νόμον τὸν χειρὶ Μωϋσέως δοθέντα.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Tue Sep 22, 2009 11:36 pm

I beg your pardon here. I've never composed in Greek before. My college work was only in translation, so this will be something nice. :)

a. Who was Cyrus?
ὁ Κῦρος ἦν ὁ τοῦ Δαρείου υἱὸς καὶ σατράπης χώρας μεγάλης.

b. What territories was Cyrus made satrap over?
ὁ Κῦρος σατράπης ἦν τῆς Λυδίας καὶ τῆς Φρυγίας καὶ τῆς Καππαδοκίας.

c. What military resources did Cyrus have at his disposal, on land and sea? Did they include Greek hoplites, or only Persian soldiers?
τῷ Κύρῳ πλοῖα μακρὰ ἦν ἐν τῇ θαλάττᾳ, καὶ χωρία ἰσχυρά, καὶ στρατιῶται ἀγαθοί. οἱ στρατιῶται τοῦ Κύρου ἦσαν ὁπλῖται Ἑλληνικοὶ καὶ πελτασταὶ καὶ τοξόται Περσικοί.

d. Who was Tissaphernes? Why did he fear Cyrus?
ὁ Τισσαφέρνης πολέμιος ἦν τῷ Κύρῳ. φόβον εἶχεν πρὸς τὸν Κῦρον διότι ὁ Κῦρος υἱὸς τοῦ Δαρείου ἦν καὶ στρατηγὸς δεινός.
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ὁ μὲν Παῦλος τοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις μαθητὰς τὴν χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἐδίδασκεν, οἱ δ᾿ ἄλλοι ἀπόστολοι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐδίδασκον τηρεῖν τὸν θεῖον νόμον τὸν χειρὶ Μωϋσέως δοθέντα.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Wed Sep 23, 2009 12:37 am

I've answered the questions below to the best of my ability. One strange thing, though, is that you listed γίγνονται as "to beget, have (children)." This isn't active (transitive) but passive. The phrase Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο would mean "Of Darius and Parysatis were born two boys." Γίγνονται is third-person plural present passive/middle indicative. In this case, it is written in the present tense, but it obviously refers to the past.

--

7. Put in the correct case forms of the masculine noun Κῦρος (Cyrus):

[1.1.1] Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο, πρεσβύτερος μὲν Ἀρταξέρξης, νεώτερος δὲ Κῦρος ἐπεὶ δὲ ἠσθένει Δαρεῖος καὶ ὑπώπτευε τελευτὴν τοῦ βίου, ἐβούλετο τὼ παῖδε ἀμφοτέρω παρεῖναι. [1.1.2] ὁ μὲν οὖν πρεσβύτερος παρὼν ἐτύγχανε· Κῦρος δὲ μεταπέμπεται ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἧς αὐτὸν σατράπην ἐποίησε, καὶ στρατηγὸν δὲ αὐτὸν ἀπέδειξε πάντων ὅσοι ἐς Καστωλοῦ πεδίον ἁθροίζονται. ἀναβαίνει οὖν ὁ Κῦρος λαβὼν Τισσαφέρνην ὡς φίλον, καὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἔχων ὁπλίτας ἀνέβη τριακοσίους, ἄρχοντα δὲ αὐτῶν Ξενίαν Παρράσιον. [1.1.3] ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτησε Δαρεῖος καὶ κατέστη εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν Ἀρταξέρξης, Τισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει τὸν Κῦρον πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν ὡς ἐπιβουλεύοι αὐτῷ. ὁ δὲ πείθεται καὶ συλλαμβάνει Κύρῳ ὡς ἀποκτενῶν· ἡ δὲ μήτηρ ἐξαιτησαμένη αὐτὸν ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν. [1.1.4] ὁ δ᾽ ὡς ἀπῆλθε κινδυνεύσας καὶ ἀτιμασθείς, βουλεύεται ὅπως μήποτε ἔτι ἔσται ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, ἀλλά, ἢν δύνηται, βασιλεύσει ἀντ᾽ ἐκείνου. Παρύσατις μὲν δὴ ἡ μήτηρ ὑπῆρχε τῷ Κύρῳ, φιλοῦσα αὐτὸν μᾶλλον ἢ τὸν βασιλεύοντα Ἀρταξέρξην.

8. Match the following verbs with their translations:

γίγνονται - be born, come into being
ἐ-βούλετο - wanted
παρ-εῖναι - to be present
ἐποίησε - made
ἀνα-βαίνει - goes up
ἀπο-πέμπει - sends away
πείθεται - convinces
βασιλεύσει - to be king
ἀπ-ῆλθε - went away
φιλοῦσα - loved
δύνηται - was possible
Jason Hare
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ὁ μὲν Παῦλος τοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις μαθητὰς τὴν χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἐδίδασκεν, οἱ δ᾿ ἄλλοι ἀπόστολοι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐδίδασκον τηρεῖν τὸν θεῖον νόμον τὸν χειρὶ Μωϋσέως δοθέντα.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Wed Sep 23, 2009 3:41 pm

Jason,
Thanks for your corrections and contributions. More of each are welcome. In particular, what aspects of grammar or vocabulary would you like to concentrate on? (I think most people here are already fairly comfortable with the Greek script, so I'll leave out that part.) This is our course and we get to make up the homework and the tests!
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Wed Sep 23, 2009 3:49 pm

Exercise in Verb Tenses. Change all verbs in the first reading passage in White FGB (Lesson 13) from past (Imperfect or Aorist) to present. e.g. Κῦρος, ὁ τοῦ Δαρείου υἱός, Πέρσης ἦν -> Κῦρος, ὁ τοῦ Δαρείου υἱός, Πέρσης ESTIN.

1. Κῦρος, ὁ τοῦ Δαρείου υἱός, Πέρσης ἦν καλὸς καὶ ἀγαθός.

2. σατράπην δὲ αὐτὸν ἐποίησεν ὁ Δαρεῖος τῆς Λυδίας καὶ τῆς Φρυγίας καὶ τῆς Καππαδοκίας.

3. χωρία δὲ ἰσχυρὰ εἶχεν ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ ὁ Κῦρος καὶ πλοῖα μακρὰ ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ, καὶ στρατιῶται δὲ αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ ἦσαν ἀγαθοί, ὁπλῖται Ἑλληνικοὶ καὶ πελτασταὶ καὶ τοξόται Περσικοί.

4.Τισσαφέρνης δέ, ὁ τῆς Καρίας σατράπης, τῷ Κύρῳ πολέμιος ἦν, τότε δὲ οὔτε ἐστράτευεν ἐπ᾿ αὐτὸν οὔτε διήρπαζε τὴν χώραν.

5. Κῦρος γὰρ στρατηγὸς ἐν πολέμῳ δεινὸς ἦν, υἱὸς δὲ τοῦ Δαρείου· ὥστε φόβον εἶχεν ὁ Τισσαφέρνης πρὸς Κῦρον.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby NateD26 » Thu Sep 24, 2009 9:42 am

My attempt on the last exercise:

1. Κῦρος, ὁ τοῦ Δαρείου υἱός, Πέρσης ἐστὶ καλὸς καὶ ἀγαθός.

2. σατράπην δὲ αὐτὸν ποιεῖ ὁ Δαρεῖος τῆς Λυδίας καὶ τῆς Φρυγίας καὶ τῆς Καππαδοκίας.

3. χωρία δὲ ἰσχυρὰ ἔχει ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ ὁ Κῦρος καὶ πλοῖα μακρὰ ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ, καὶ στρατιῶται δὲ αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ εἰσὶν ἀγαθοί, ὁπλῖται Ἑλληνικοὶ καὶ πελτασταὶ καὶ τοξόται Περσικοί.

4.Τισσαφέρνης δέ, ὁ τῆς Καρίας σατράπης, τῷ Κύρῳ πολέμιός ἐστιν, τότε δὲ οὔτε στρατεύει ἐπ᾿ αὐτὸν οὔτε διαρπάζει τὴν χώραν.

5. Κῦρος γὰρ στρατηγὸς ἐν πολέμῳ δεινός ἐστιν, υἱὸς δὲ τοῦ Δαρείου· ὥστε φόβον ἔχει ὁ Τισσαφέρνης πρὸς Κῦρον.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Thu Sep 24, 2009 12:58 pm

Here's mine:

1. Κῦρος, ὁ τοῦ Δαρείου υἱός, Πέρσης ἐστὶ (ἦν) καλὸς καὶ ἀγαθός.

2. σατράπην δὲ αὐτὸν ποιεῖ (ἐποίησεν) ὁ Δαρεῖος τῆς Λυδίας καὶ τῆς Φρυγίας καὶ τῆς Καππαδοκίας.

3. χωρία δὲ ἰσχυρὰ ἔχει (εἶχεν) ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ ὁ Κῦρος καὶ πλοῖα μακρὰ ἐν τῇ θαλάττῃ, καὶ στρατιῶται δὲ αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ εἰσὶν (ἦσαν) ἀγαθοί, ὁπλῖται Ἑλληνικοὶ καὶ πελτασταὶ καὶ τοξόται Περσικοί.

4. Τισσαφέρνης δέ, ὁ τῆς Καρίας σατράπης, τῷ Κύρῳ πολέμιός ἐστιν (ἦν), τότε δὲ οὔτε στρατεύει (ἐστράτευεν) ἐπ᾿ αὐτὸν οὔτε διαρπάζει (διήρπαζε) τὴν χώραν.

5. Κῦρος γὰρ στρατηγὸς ἐν πολέμῳ δεινός ἐστιν (ἦν), υἱὸς δὲ τοῦ Δαρείου· ὥστε φόβον ἔχει (εἶχεν) ὁ Τισσαφέρνης πρὸς Κῦρον.
Last edited by jaihare on Thu Sep 24, 2009 7:49 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby NateD26 » Thu Sep 24, 2009 1:21 pm

Hey, Jason.
How about the other verbs in #4? :)
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Bert » Thu Sep 24, 2009 4:37 pm

[quote="jaihare"] One strange thing, though, is that you listed γίγνονται as "to beget, have (children)." This isn't active (transitive) but passive. The phrase Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο would mean "Of Darius and Parysatis were born two boys." Γίγνονται is third-person plural present passive/middle indicative. In this case, it is written in the present tense, but it obviously refers to the past.

--
γίγνομαι doesn't have an active form in the present tense. It is middle. The fact that it is present in Greek (but past in English) is a matter of translation. In English we don't usually narrate in the present tense. (Some exceptions: This guy walks into a bar and says.....)
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Thu Sep 24, 2009 7:50 pm

NateD26 wrote:Hey, Jason.
How about the other verbs in #4? :)


Thanks for that. :)
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Thu Sep 24, 2009 7:52 pm

Bert wrote:
jaihare wrote: One strange thing, though, is that you listed γίγνονται as "to beget, have (children)." This isn't active (transitive) but passive. The phrase Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο would mean "Of Darius and Parysatis were born two boys." Γίγνονται is third-person plural present passive/middle indicative. In this case, it is written in the present tense, but it obviously refers to the past.


γίγνομαι doesn't have an active form in the present tense. It is middle. The fact that it is present in Greek (but past in English) is a matter of translation. In English we don't usually narrate in the present tense. (Some exceptions: This guy walks into a bar and says.....)


Indeed. I wasn't suggesting that it needed to be translated as present tense. But it surely must be parsed and identified as the present. In a context like this, would you take the verb as middle or passive? It doesn't seem to be the middle (as in καὶ ἐγένετο) but specifically that they were born (in the passive sense). Am I wrong in my understanding?

Thanks,
Jason
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Thu Sep 24, 2009 11:11 pm

I've got to say...

The bit of piecing together and composing that I did here in answering the questions above, and the composition that I posted on my own forum for Athenaze... this is the most Greek writing I've ever done, and I'm so happy to be able to do what I've done here. I'm encouraged and excited to keep pushing ahead!
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Bert » Fri Sep 25, 2009 12:13 am

jaihare wrote:
Indeed. I wasn't suggesting that it needed to be translated as present tense. But it surely must be parsed and identified as the present. In a context like this, would you take the verb as middle or passive? It doesn't seem to be the middle (as in καὶ ἐγένετο) but specifically that they were born (in the passive sense). Am I wrong in my understanding?

Thanks,
Jason

Ah, now I see what you mean. Sorry about that. You meant -were born- rather than -beget.- I think you are right. To beget would be γενν́αω. I do think this is middle or rather, intransitive though. "Two boys came to be (by birth) Of Darius and Parysatis."
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Fri Sep 25, 2009 4:09 pm

The text of the Anabasis can also be read online using Tufts University's Perseus tool (http://old.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/pt ... 99.01.0201). For example, the first four lines of the Anabasis look like this:

I. Dareiou kai Parusatidos gignontai paides duo++, presbuteros men Artaxerxês+, neôteros de Kuros++: epei++ de êsthenei++ Dareios+++ kai hupôpteue++ teleutên++ tou biou++, ebouleto+ tô paide++ amphoterô pareinai++. [2] ho men oun presbuteros parôn etunchane: Kuron+ de metapempetai+ apo++ tês archês+ hês auton+++ satrapên+ epoiêse, kai stratêgon++ de auton apedeixe++ pantôn hosoi es Kastôlou pedion hathroizontai. anabainei oun ho Kuros labôn Tissaphernên hôs philon, kai tôn Hellênôn echôn hoplitas anebê triakosious, archonta de autôn Xenian Parrasion. [3] epei de eteleutêse+ Dareios kai katestê+ eis tên basileian Artaxerxês, Tissaphernês diaballei ton Kuron pros ton adelphon hôs epibouleuoi autôi++++. ho de peithetai kai sullambanei Kuron hôs apoktenôn: hê de mêtêr exaitêsamenê auton apopempei palin epi tên archên. [4] ho d' hôs apêlthe kinduneusas kai atimastheis, bouleuetai hopôs mêpote eti estai epi tôi adelphôi, alla, ên dunêtai, basileusei ant' ekeinou. Parusatis men dê hê mêtêr hupêrche tôi Kurôi, philousa auton mallon ê ton basileuonta Artaxerxên+.

If you click on a word you want to learn more about, like "gignontai", a little screen (the "word study tool") pops up, telling you its definition is "to come into being" and that it's "pres ind mid/pass 3rd pl pres_redupl" (along with information on the word's frequency of occurrence and links to entries in other dictionaries). How cool is that?! You can also have Perseus display the Greek text in Greek characters, or show the English translation. I'm just beginning to discover how to use the tools at Perseus. I encourage you to explore, too, and share the cool things you learn how to do.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Fri Sep 25, 2009 7:45 pm

Here are some additional resources.

Several other old (i.e., public domain) Greek textbooks, besides White's, contain excerpts or paraphrases from Xenophon's Anabasis, including books by Bonner, Collis, Crosby, and Frost. Reading passages in these books will give you more practice with the vocabulary and structures we're studying in White's FGB and in Xenophon. Here are links to online versions on GoogleBooks:
http://books.google.com/books?id=hxYBAA ... q=&f=false
http://books.google.com/books?id=pRABAA ... q=&f=false
http://books.google.com/books?id=3owCAA ... q=&f=false
http://books.google.com/books?id=HSUBAA ... on&f=false

Readers of German will also appreciate this excellent online Greek tutorial by F. J. Mehr, which analyzes excerpts of Xenophon (I borrowed his idea of using "Perseus" to read the Anabasis (even if you don't read German, you may find it worthwhile just to try to read the Greek examples.):
http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Agora/6594/inhalt.html
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Fri Sep 25, 2009 8:10 pm

See also this portrait and biography of Xenophon as an author (in Greek), together with links to the text, and even a map of the route taken by the 10,000 Greeks. For a total beginner, it's fun to try find his name and the Anabasis of Cyrus in Greek. At any level, it's worth trying to use the graphics and other contextual clues to figure out what you can.

http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/graec ... _intr.html
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby NateD26 » Fri Sep 25, 2009 8:52 pm

Thank you, Prometheus, for these wonderful links. I'm sure they will be of aid to us all.

Regarding the Perseus site, this is a bit unnatural for me to read a Greek text
spelled phonetically in English like that. Here's the link to the Anabasis on the updated Perseus site (v4.0):
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0201

The text is written in Greek and you can load the English translation (Carleton L. Brownson, 1922) to the right of the text;
you can also use the References for further study. Each word is linked to the LSJ/Middle-Liddell dictionaries
and to the left you have a detailed index to quickly jump to the desired book, chapter or section. :)
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Bert » Fri Sep 25, 2009 9:17 pm

NateD26 wrote:Thank you, Prometheus, for these wonderful links. I'm sure they will be of aid to us all.

Regarding the Perseus site, this is a bit unnatural for me to read a Greek text
spelled phonetically in English like that.

Perseus gives you choices how you want the Greek displayed. Click on "Configure display " and make your choice.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Mon Sep 28, 2009 10:55 pm

Here's an excerpt from one of those 19th century textbooks, Frost's Alpha, in which a sadistic teacher (ΔΙΔΑΣΚΑΛΟΣ) interrogates his unfortunate pupil (ΜΑΘΗΤΗΣ) about Cyrus and Xenophon. Are they the answers you would have given?

ΜΑΘΗΤΗΣ. ῾Ο δὲ Κῦρος τίς ἐστιν;
ΔΙΔΑΣΚΑΛΟΣ. ῾Ο Ξενοφῶν λέγει τὸν Κῦρον εἶναι υἰὸν Δαρείου, ἄνδρα καλὸν καὶ ἀγαθόν.
2.
Μ. Τίς δὲ ἡ μήτηρ τοῦ Κύρου;
Δ. ῾Ο Ξενοφῶν λέγει τὴν τοῦ Κύρου μητέρα Παρυσάτιδα εἴναι, θυγατέρα ᾿Αρταξέρξου.
3.
Μ. ᾿Αρα οὐκ ᾿Αρταξέρξης ἀδελφὸς τοῦ Κύρου;
Δ. Οὐκ ῾ο αὐτὸς ἀνήρ· ῾ο γὰρ Παρυσάτιδος πατὴρ πρεσβύτερος ἧν. ᾿Αρταξέρξης οὖν ὁ νέος ἁδελφός ἑστιν, υἱὸς τοῦ αὐτοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τῆς αὐτῆς μητρός.
4.
Μ. ᾿Αρα ἐφιλει ἡ Παρύσατις τὼ παιδίω;
Δ. Τὸν μὲν Κῦρον ἑφίλει, τὸν δὲ ᾿Αρταξέρξην ἑμίσει.
5.
Μ. Τί δὲ ἕγραψεν ὁ Ξενοφῶν;
Δ. ῾Ο Ξενοφῶν αὐτὸς διὰ φιλίαν ἕγραψε περὶ Κύρου τοῦ Δαρείου υἱοῦ· ἔγραψε δὲ καὶ περὶ Κύρου τοῦ πρεσβυτέρου.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Fri Oct 02, 2009 3:29 pm

Here's another passage from William Goodell Frost's Alpha: A Greek Primer Introductory to Xenophon, 2nd ed., 1891, (pp. 56-57), which summarizes the facts of the Anabasis and the lives of Cyrus and Xenophon in four paragraphs:
http://books.google.com/books?id=uBABAA ... q=&f=false

(I can't figure out how to get the text in here to make an exercise out of it, without typing it in by hand. The file is in PDF format and has copy permission, but when I copy pieces, they just show up as graphics, not text. Anyone have any ideas?)
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Fri Oct 02, 2009 6:52 pm

Another beginning Greek text from the same era as White's, the Beginner's Greek Book, by Allen Rogers Benner and Herbert Weir Smyth (1906),
contains a 14-page section of somewhat simplified "Selections from the Anabasis", beginning with a summary in English:

http://books.google.com/books?id=Mo8XAA ... q=&f=false

The English summary is worth looking at, since the more you know about the background, the better you'll be able to understand the Anabasis in Greek.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Sun Oct 04, 2009 6:28 pm

Here's another sentence gap exercise, this time concentrating on feminine articles.

Review the -A declension, or first declension, of feminine nouns and their accompanying articles and adjectives in Lessons 3,4, and 6, especially noting the singular pattern

η χωρα (Nominative)
της χωρας (Genetitve)
τη χωρα (Dative)
την χωραν (Accusative)

It helps me to compare the genetive with the English possesive "'s", as in της Λυδιας σατράπης/σατράπης της Λυδιας and "California's governor"/"the Governor of California".

(1) Κῦρος, ὁ τοῦ Δαρείου υἱός, Πέρσης ἦν καλὸς καὶ ἀγαθός. σατράπην δὲ αὐτὸν ἐποίησεν ὁ Δαρεῖος ____ Λυδίας καὶ______Φρυγίας καὶ____Καππαδοκίας. (2) χωρία δὲ ἰσχυρὰ εἶχεν ἐν ____ἀρχῇ ὁ Κῦρος καὶ πλοῖα μακρὰ ἐν ______θαλάττῃ, καὶ στρατιῶται δὲ αὐτῷ ἐν ____χώρᾳ ἦσαν ἀγαθοί, ὁπλῖται Ἑλληνικοὶ καὶ πελτασταὶ καὶ τοξόται Περσικοί. (3) Τισσαφέρνης δέ, ὁ ____ Καρίας σατράπης, τῷ Κύρῳ πολέμιος ἦν, τότε δὲ οὔτε ἐστράτευεν ἐπ᾿ αὐτὸν οὔτε διήρπαζε ____ χώραν. (4) Κῦρος γὰρ στρατηγὸς ἐν πολέμῳ δεινὸς ἦν, υἱὸς δὲ τοῦ Δαρείου· ὥστε φόβον εἶχεν ὁ Τισσαφέρνης πρὸς Κῦρον.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Sun Oct 04, 2009 6:31 pm

Just so you know, Prometheus.... Nathan and I have completed up to section 120 in FGB now. This means that in terms of both grammar and vocabulary we are ready to jump into the reading that you've posted, since it comes from the following lesson. I'll be looking over things again in this thread. I'm really happy with the progress that we've made this weekend.

Looking forward to working with you! Why haven't you posted anything on the other forum, by the way?

Best wishes,
Jason
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Sun Oct 04, 2009 6:58 pm

Just so you know, Prometheus.... Nathan and I have completed up to section 120 in FGB now. This means that in terms of both grammar and vocabulary we are ready to jump into the reading that you've posted, since it comes from the following lesson. I'll be looking over things again in this thread. I'm really happy with the progress that we've made this weekend.

Looking forward to working with you! Why haven't you posted anything on the other forum, by the way?

Best wishes,
Jason


That's great!

(Actually, I did try to post something on the other forum, asking whether a running lesson-by-lesson list of verbs covered and their principal parts would be helpful, and how else I could contribute, but my message seems to have been lost in cyber-space. I'll try again, though.)

Does anyone feel in need more work on any of the verb tenses covered (Present, Imperfect, Future, Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect) in White's lessons up to 13? If so, I've got a couple of ideas.

Christopher Marchetti's Elementary Ancient Greek (http://www.tadorapress.com/EAGlist) gives nice, short summaries, with lots of examples, of the Imperfect (Chapter 9), Future (Chapter 10), Aorist (Chapt. 11), and Perfect and Pluperfect tenses (Chapt. 12). The author says that his aim is "to provide maximum practice with the basic grammatical structures", without discussing exceptional cases.

If you want more detailed explanations, you might try the relevant sections of Dr. Dora Pozzi's online course, "Introduction to Ancient and Biblical Greek" (http://www.class.uh.edu/MCL/faculty/poz ... l1.syl.htm). The Future is taken up in Lessons 3 and 5, the Imperfect in Lesson 6, and the Aorist in Lesson 9.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Tue Oct 06, 2009 3:01 pm

As a final (?) exercise on the first four lines of Xenophon, rearrange this scrambled version so that it makes sense. In doing so, you're of course drawing on your knowledge of Greek (that the conjunctions οὖν 'so' and δὲ 'and' 'but' imply that something came before) and of the world (e.g., that dying kings more commonly summon their children to their side before their death, rather than afterwards).

[1] Παρύσατις μὲν δὴ ἡ μήτηρ ὑπῆρχε τῷ Κύρῳ, φιλοῦσα αὐτὸν μᾶλλον ἢ τὸν βασιλεύοντα Ἀρταξέρξην.
[2] ὁ δ᾽ ὡς ἀπῆλθε κινδυνεύσας καὶ ἀτιμασθείς, βουλεύεται ὅπως μήποτε ἔτι ἔσται ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, ἀλλά, ἢν δύνηται, βασιλεύσει ἀντ᾽ ἐκείνου.
[3] ἡ δὲ μήτηρ ἐξαιτησαμένη αὐτὸν ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν.
[4] ὁ δὲ πείθεται καὶ συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον ὡς ἀποκτενῶν·
[5] ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτησε Δαρεῖος καὶ κατέστη εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν Ἀρταξέρξης, Τισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει τὸν Κῦρον πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν ὡς ἐπιβουλεύοι αὐτῷ.
[6] ἀναβαίνει οὖν ὁ Κῦρος λαβὼν Τισσαφέρνην ὡς φίλον, καὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἔχων ὁπλίτας ἀνέβη τριακοσίους, ἄρχοντα δὲ αὐτῶν Ξενίαν Παρράσιον.
[7] Κῦρον δὲ μεταπέμπεται ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἧς αὐτὸν σατράπην ἐποίησε, καὶ στρατηγὸν δὲ αὐτὸν ἀπέδειξε πάντων ὅσοι ἐς Καστωλοῦ πεδίον ἁθροίζονται.
[8] ὁ μὲν οὖν πρεσβύτερος παρὼν ἐτύγχανε·
[9] ἐπεὶ δὲ ἠσθένει Δαρεῖος καὶ ὑπώπτευε τελευτὴν τοῦ βίου, ἐβούλετο τὼ παῖδε ἀμφοτέρω παρεῖναι.
[10] Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο, πρεσβύτερος μὲν Ἀρταξέρξης, νεώτερος δὲ Κῦρος·
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby jaihare » Tue Oct 06, 2009 11:28 pm

These exercises are nice, Prometheus. Thanks for this!
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ὁ μὲν Παῦλος τοὺς ἐν ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις μαθητὰς τὴν χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐν Χριστῷ ἐδίδασκεν, οἱ δ᾿ ἄλλοι ἀπόστολοι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐδίδασκον τηρεῖν τὸν θεῖον νόμον τὸν χειρὶ Μωϋσέως δοθέντα.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Wed Oct 07, 2009 3:14 am

jaihare wrote:These exercises are nice, Prometheus. Thanks for this!


I'm glad to hear that you find them helpful. Your suggestions, corrections, and exercises or sentences that you (or others) come up with, are also very welcome.

I haven't tried to use Hot Potatoes yet, but I suppose that should be straightforward. One advantage of that is that more clues can be supplied for some of the English-to-Greek translation exercises in the book, in the form of drop-down boxes. Maybe some of the sentences in the translation exercises can even be glued together, so that they make up meaningful passages?

Lee
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Fri Oct 09, 2009 10:11 pm

Here's another excerpt from Frost's Alpha primer, talking about Cyrus:

Κῦρος, ὁ Δαρείου, ἀδελφὸς ἦν Αρταξέρξου τῆς Μηδίας βασιλέως· καἳ ὁ πατὴρ ἐποίησεν αὐτὸν στρατηγὸν τῶν τῆς Φρυγίας στρατιωτῶν. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτησεν ὁ πατήρ, ὁ Κῦρος σὺν μυρίοις 'Ελλησι καὶ δυνάμει βαρβάρων ἐστρατεύσατο ἐπὶ τὸν βασιλέα, εἰς τὴν Βαβυλωνίαν.
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Rindu » Mon Oct 12, 2009 3:40 am

Nice thread, guys. You really have this together!
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Re: Like to Start New Group

Postby Prometheus » Tue Oct 13, 2009 5:34 pm

Thanks, Rindu!

We may be getting a bit ahead of White on this, but I think verbal particles come up so often in this text (both the original Xenophon and White's condensed Xenophon), that this exercise may be helpful.

List (copy and paste) the present participles ending in -ON (in masculine nominative singular) with meanings like "being", "having", "taking", "ruling", etc.:

[1.1.1] Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο, πρεσβύτερος μὲν Ἀρταξέρξης, νεώτερος δὲ Κῦρος· ἐπεὶ δὲ ἠσθένει Δαρεῖος καὶ ὑπώπτευε τελευτὴν τοῦ βίου, ἐβούλετο τὼ παῖδε ἀμφοτέρω παρεῖναι. [1.1.2] ὁ μὲν οὖν πρεσβύτερος παρὼν ἐτύγχανε· Κῦρον δὲ μεταπέμπεται ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς ἧς αὐτὸν σατράπην ἐποίησε, καὶ στρατηγὸν δὲ αὐτὸν ἀπέδειξε πάντων ὅσοι ἐς Καστωλοῦ πεδίον ἁθροίζονται. ἀναβαίνει οὖν ὁ Κῦρος λαβὼν Τισσαφέρνην ὡς φίλον, καὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἔχων ὁπλίτας ἀνέβη τριακοσίους, ἄρχοντα δὲ αὐτῶν Ξενίαν Παρράσιον. [1.1.3] ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐτελεύτησε Δαρεῖος καὶ κατέστη εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν Ἀρταξέρξης, Τισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει τὸν Κῦρον πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν ὡς ἐπιβουλεύοι αὐτῷ. ὁ δὲ πείθεται καὶ συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον ὡς ἀποκτενῶν· ἡ δὲ μήτηρ ἐξαιτησαμένη αὐτὸν ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν. [1.1.4] ὁ δ᾽ ὡς ἀπῆλθε κινδυνεύσας καὶ ἀτιμασθείς, βουλεύεται ὅπως μήποτε ἔτι ἔσται ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, ἀλλά, ἢν δύνηται, βασιλεύσει ἀντ᾽ ἐκείνου. Παρύσατις μὲν δὴ ἡ μήτηρ ὑπῆρχε τῷ Κύρῳ, φιλοῦσα αὐτὸν μᾶλλον ἢ τὸν βασιλεύοντα Ἀρταξέρξην.

Present Participles:
being present ________________
taking ______________________
having ______________________
ruling _______________________
killing _______________________
reigning _____________________
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