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Latinists!

Postby Quis ut Deus » Thu Apr 09, 2009 10:15 pm

How do you go about choosing which word best fits the sense of the sentence?

Is it a matter of experience, or is there a method to it.

For example, both "exponere" and "explicare" have explain as a meaning.

I speak Spanish (2nd language), so "explicare" would be a direct cognate for "explicar" in Spanish. But how would I know which to use?

Other examples include "nata/filia" ("daughter"), "flumen/fluvius" ("river"), etc.
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Re: Latinists!

Postby adrianus » Fri Apr 10, 2009 12:16 am

Examine the various senses and the differences between them in a good dictionary, such as this one of Lewis and Short, and read all the books they cite! Some senses are identical between words, some near identical, some different (and some opposites, of course). Oh, if that wasn't hard enough for you, the senses of a single word can also change and vary over time and between places, so you need to check the dates and places of the authors cited. Otherwise, just do the best you can, until someone points out your mistakes.
Sensibus variis et discriminibus mutuis in dictionario bono ut hoc apud Lewis et Short studeas. Tunc omnes libros quos citant legas! Aliae significationes inter verbos synonyma sunt, aliae similes, aliae diversae (aliae antonyma, certé). Hui! Si id tibi non satìs difficile est, memoriâ tene sensus singuli verbi per tempore et inter locos variare mutareque posse. Ideò, te oportet et locos nativos et aetates auctorum citatorum notare. Aliter, apertè fac pro viribus antequàm nescio quis te corrigit.
L&S http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/re ... lang=Latin on 'explico' and 'expono' wrote:ex-pōno , pŏsŭi, pŏsĭtum, 3 (ante-class.
• I. perf. exposivit, Plaut. Cas. 4, 4, 27; sync. expostus, Verg. A. 10, 694 ; Stat. Th. 7, 197), v. a., to put or set out, to set forth, expose (class.; most freq. in the trop. signif.; cf.: expedio, explano, explico).
• I. Lit.
◦ A. In gen.: stravit pelliculis haedinis lectulos et exposuit vasa Samia, set out, Cic. Mur. 36, 75 : vasa, id. Verr. 2, 4, 16, § 35 : apparatum in porticibus, Suet. Caes. 10 ; cf.: aliquid in publico, Plin. 35, 7, 33, § 52 ; cf. id. 15, 5, 6, § 21: herbam in sole, Col. 12, 28, 1 : aliquem ictu, to put out, turn out, Plaut. Truc. 3, 1, 14 : cubito, id. Cas. 4, 4, 27 .--
◦ B. In partic.
▪ 1. Of children, to expose: puellam ad necem, Plaut. Cist. 1, 3, 18 ; id. Cas. prol. 41; Ter. Heaut. 4, 1, 37; Cic. Rep. 2, 2; Liv. 1, 4, 5; cf. id. 1, 6, 3: ad januam matris, Suet. Claud. 27 al. --
▪ 2. Naut. t. t.
▪ a. To set on shore, to land, disembark: milites ex navibus, Caes. B. G. 4, 37, 1 ; for which: socios de puppibus, Verg. A. 10, 288 : milites in terram, Caes. B. C. 3, 23, 2 : expositis omnibus copiis, id. ib. 3, 29, 2 ; 1, 31 fin.; Liv. 24, 40, 9: ibi in terram, id. 34, 8, 7 ; Front. Strat. 2, 5, 44; cf.: in litora, Liv. 37, 28, 8 : aegra mancipia in insulam, Suet. Claud. 25 ; but also with abl.: in Africa, Liv. 28, 44, 10 Drak. N. cr.: in terra, Vell. 2, 79, 4 : in litore, Suet. Caes. 4 ; Just. 22, 5; Liv. 2, 22, 3; 26, 17, 2; Sen. Ep. 53, 2: in portu, Just. 18, 1, 3 : ibi Themistoclem, Nep. Them. 8, 7 : ad eum locum milites, Caes. B. C. 3, 6, 3 : quibus regionibus exercitum exposuisset, id. ib. 3, 29 fin.: expositum peregrinis arenis os, Ov. M. 11, 56 : quartā vix demum exponimur horā, Hor. S. 1, 5, 23 : advexi frumentum; exposui, vendo meum, etc., have unloaded, unpacked, opened, Cic. Off. 3, 12, 51 : merces, Dig. 14, 2, 10 .--
▪ b. To throw on the ground, throw down: paene exposivit cubito, Plaut. Cas. 4, 4, 34 .--
▪ c. To throw overboard: si propter necessitatem adversae tempestatis expositum onus fuerit, Dig. 39, 4, 16, § 8 .--
▪ 3. Mercant. t. t.: pecuniam, to offer a sum to one, place at one's disposal, to be ready to pay: de Oppio bene curasti, quod ei DCCC. exposuisti, Cic. Att. 5, 4, 3 (for which, aperuisti, id. ib. 5, 1, 2).--
▪ 4. Pregn., to leave exposed or unprotected, to expose, lay open (not ante-Aug.): ad ictus, Liv. 9, 35, 6 ; Curt. 8, 14, 31: ille ad omnes ictus expositus, id. 9, 5, 9 : ne inermes provinciae barbaris nationibus exponerentur, Tac. H. 3, 5 : exercitum hosti, Flor. 3, 11 ; Plin. 11, 19, 21, § 67: ceteris animalibus imbecillitatem hominum, Lact. 3, 23, 10 ; id. Epit. 9, 1; Val. Max. 7, 1, ext. 2: piscibus beluisque, Petr. 115 : exposito solibus loco, Plin. 15, 5, 6, § 21 .--Pass. absol.: (iracundi) simplices videntur, quia expositi sunt, Sen. de Ira, 2, 16, 3.
• II. Trop.
◦ A. In gen.: totam causam, judices, explicemus atque ante oculos expositam consideremus, Cic. Rosc. Am. 12, 34 ; cf.: vitam alterius in oculis conspectuque omnium exponere, id. Div. in Caecil. 8, 27 : disciplina puerilis publice exposita, id. Rep. 4, 3 : orationem, to publish, id. de Or. 1, 53, 227 ; cf.: capita exposita nec explicata, id. Brut. 44, 164 : erant huic studio maxima exposita praemia, id. de Or. 1, 4, 15 : praemium, to set forth, propose, id. Quint. 23, 74 : vitam suam exponere ad imitandum juventuti, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 104, 3: factum expositum ad imitandum, id. Phil. 2, 44, 114 : exposita ad exemplum nostra re publica, id. Rep. 1, 46 : opprobrio ad omnium convicia exposito, Suet. Caes. 49 : expositum ad invidiam nomen, Tac. H. 2, 53 : nomen Dei, to prostitute, dishonor, Lact. 1, 7 .--
◦ B. In partic., of speech, to set forth, exhibit, relate, explain, expound; constr. with acc. and inf., or a rel. clause as object, or with de: coepit rationem hujus operis scientissime Gallus exponere, Cic. Rep. 1, 14 : talis coetus, qualem exposui, id. ib. 1, 26 : quae adhuc exposui, id. ib. 2, 23 : obscura dilucide, id. Fin. 4, 1, 1 : rem pluribus verbis, id. ib. 3, 4, 15 : rem breviter, id. Cat. 3, 1, 3 : mandata in senatu, id. de Or. 2, 12, 49 : narrationem, id. Or. 62, 210 : sententias ejus disputationis hoc libro, id. Lael. 1, 3 : artes rhetoricas, id. de Or. 3, 20, 75 : disputationem alicui, id. Rep. 1, 8 : sermonem de amicitia alicui, id. Lael. 1, 3 : eadem multitudini, Caes. B. G. 7, 38, 4 : expone igitur primum animos remanere post mortem, tum docebis, etc., explain, Cic. Tusc. 1, 12, 26 : apud eosdem (censores), qui magistratu abierint, edant et exponant, quid in magistratu gesserint, id. Leg. 3, 20, 47 : ex memoria alicui quid senatus censuerit, id. Cat. 3, 6, 13 : ab initio, res quemadmodum gesta sit, id. Rosc. Am. 5, 14 ; id. Rep. 1, 26; cf.: hoc de quo modo exposuit Antonius, id. de Or. 1, 22, 102 ; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10: expone nunc de reprehendendo, id. Part. Or. 12, 44 .--In abl. neutr. absol.: Caesar contione advocata ... exposito, quid iniquitas loci posset, etc., Caes. B. G. 7, 52, 2 Oud.; so, exposito quod nuntiatum erat, Curt. 4, 13 : quasi gesta bello expositurus, Tac. A. 15, 72 : summum bonum exposuit vacuitatem doloris, i. q. definivit, be defined, Cic. Fin. 5, 5, 14 Madv.; cf. ib. 5, 8, 22; and, expositio, ib. § 21.--Hence, expŏsĭtus , a, um, P. a., qs. publicly set out; hence, open, free, accessible.
◦ A. Lit.: limen, Stat. S. 1, 2, 24 : census, open to all, id. ib. 2, 2, 152 : numen (with nulli negatum), Luc. 5, 103 ; cf.: (homo) obvius et expositus, Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 2 .--As subst.: ex-pŏsĭta , ōrum, n., the open parts, those exposed to view: frontem ejus tantum novi et exposita, quae ostendit etiam transeuntibus, Sen. Ep. 55, 6 .--
◦ B. Trop.
▪ 1. Accessible, affable: mores, Stat. S. 5, 3, 246 .--
▪ 2. Of authors, intelligible, lucid: optimos quidem, sed tamen eorum candidissimum quemque et maxime expositum velim, Quint. 2, 5, 19 .--
▪ 3. In a bad sense, common, vulgar: qui nihil expositum soleat deducere, etc., Juv. 7, 54 .--Adv.: expŏ-sĭte , plainly, clearly: non exposite et aperte ostendere, sed reconditā significatione, Gell. 3, 2, 14 .

ex-plĭco , āvi and ŭi (the latter first in Verg. G. 2, 280; afterwards freq.; Hor. C. 3, 29, 16; 4, 9, 44; id. S. 2, 2, 125; Liv. 7, 23, 6 et saep.; cf. Gell. 1, 7, 20), ātum or ĭtum (Cic. uses mostly atum, Caes. atum and itum; cf.
◦ I. explicaturos, Caes. B. C. 1, 78, 4 ; with explicitis, id. ib. 3, 75, 2 ; and, explicitius, id. ib. 1, 78, 2 ; upon these forms v. Neue, Formenl. 2, pp. 479 sq., 550 sq.), 1, v. a., to unfold, uncoil, unroll, unfurl, spread out, loosen, undo (class.; esp. freq. in the trop. sense; syn.: expedio, extrico, enodo, enucleo; explano, expono, interpretor).
◦ I. Lit.: velum, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 7 : non explicata veste neque proposito argento, etc., spread out, Cic. de Or. 1, 35, 161 : volumen, to open, id. Rosc. Am. 35, 101 : suas pennas (ales), Ov. Am. 2, 6, 55 : plenas plagas, Mart. 1, 56, 8 : perturbatum et confusum agmen, to put in order, Hirt. B. G. 8, 14, 2 : capillum pectine, Varr. L. L. 5, § 129 Müll.: fusos, to unwind, Mart. 4, 54, 10 : frontem sollicitam, to free from wrinkles, to smooth, Hor. C. 3, 29, 16 ; for which: explicare seria contractae frontis, id. S. 2, 2, 125 ; cf. mare, i. e. to calm, Sen. Herc. Oet. 455 : si ex his te laqueis exueris ac te aliqua via ac ratione explicaris, hast extricated, freed thyself, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 58, § 151 : se (ex funibus ancorarum), Dig. 9, 2, 29 : inimicae et oves, difficile se (apibus) e lanis earum explicantibus, Plin. 11, 18, 19, § 62 : se explicat angustum, Juv. 12, 55 .--
◦ B. Transf., to spread out, stretch out, extend, deploy, display: aciem, Liv. 7, 23, 6 ; 40, 4, 4; 40, 5, 26 al.; cf. ordinem, id. 2, 46, 3 : agmen, id. 10, 20, 3 : cohortes (longa legio), Verg. G. 2, 280 : se turmatim (equites), Caes. B. C. 3, 93, 3 ; cf. mid.: priusquam plane legiones explicari et consistere possent, id. ib. 2, 26, 4 ; and: ut ordo omnium navium explicari posset, Liv. 37, 23, 10 : per obstantis catervas Explicuit sua victor arma, Hor. C. 4, 9, 44 : atria, congestos satis explicatura clientes, Stat. Th. 1, 146 : ut forum laxaremus et usque ad atrium Libertatis explicaremus, extend, Cic. Att. 4, 16, 14 ; cf.: unde pons in oppidum pertinens explicatur, Sall. H. 3, 20 : orbes (serpens), Ov. M. 15, 720 : frondes omnes (pampinus), Verg. G. 2, 335 : se (montes), Plin. 5, 29, 31, § 118 : arida ligna in flammas (ignis), Lucr. 2, 882 : convivium, i. e. to set out richly, to furnish, Mart. 1, 100, 13 : explicavi meam rem post illa lucro, i. e. amplified, enlarged, Plaut. Poen. 3, 5, 5 .
◦ II. Trop.
◦ A. In gen. (very seldom): explica atque excute intelligentiam tuam, ut videas quae sit, etc., display, Cic. Off. 3, 20, 81 : Siciliam multis undique cinctam periculis explicavit, has set at large, set free (qs. released from toils, snares), id. de Imp. Pomp. 11, 30; cf.: quemadmodum se explicent dicendo, id. Fl. 4, 10 : da operam, ut te explices, huc quam primum venias, Pompei. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, D. 2.--
◦ B. In partic.
▪ 1. To disentangle, set in order, arrange, regulate, settle, adjust any thing complicated or difficult: pulcre ego hanc explicatam tibi rem dabo, Plaut. Ps. 4, 1 , 20: peto a te, ut ejus negotia explices et expedias, Cic. Fam. 13, 26, 2 : negotia, id. Att. 5, 12, 3 ; cf. id. ib. 16, 3, 5: belli rationem, id. Prov. Cons. 14, 35 ; cf.: rationem salutis, id. Fam. 6, 1, 2 : rem frumentariam, Hirt. B. G. 8, 4 fin. : si Faberius nobis nomen illud explicat, noli quaerere, quanti, settles, i. e. pays that item, Cic. Att. 13, 29, 2: Faberianum, id. ib. § 3; cf.: si qui debitores, quia non possint explicare pecuniam, differant solutionem, Dig. 42, 1, 31 : consilium, Caes. B. C. 1, 78, 4 ; cf.: his explicitis rebus, id. ib. 3, 75, 2 : subvenire tempestati quavis ratione sapientis est; eoque magis, si plus adipiscare re explicatā boni, quam addubitatā mali, Cic. Off. 1, 24, 83 : ea, quae per defunctum inchoata sunt, per heredem explicari debent, Dig. 27, 7, 1 : transii ad elegos: hos quoque feliciter explicui, Plin. Ep. 7, 4, 7 (cf. under !*?): iter commode explicui, excepto quod, etc., Plin. Ep. 8, 1, 1 : fugam, Phaedr. 4, 7, 15 : nihilo plus explicet ac si Insanire paret, etc., will make no more out of it, Hor. S. 2, 3, 270 .--
▪ 2. Of speech, to develop, unfold, set forth, exhibit, treat, state: vitam alterius totam explicare, Civ. Div. in Caecil. 8, 27: perfice, ut Crassus haec, quae coartavit et peranguste refersit in oratione sua, dilatet nobis atque explicet, id. de Or. 1, 35, 163 : explicando excutiendoque verbo, id. Part. Or. 36, 124 : aliquid expedite, id. Brut. 67, 237 : aliquid apertissime planissimeque, id. Verr. 2, 2, 64, § 156 : aliquid definitione, id. Fin. 3, 10, 33 : funera fando, Verg. A. 2, 362 : philosophiam, Cic. Div. 2, 2, 6 ; cf.: philosophiam diligentissime Graecis litteris, id. Ac. 1, 2, 4 : summorum oratorum Graecas orationes, id. de Or. 1, 34, 155 : geometricum quiddam aut physicum aut dialecticum (corresp. to expedire), id. Div. 2, 59, 122 : non de aegritudine solum, sed de omni animi perturbatione explicabo, id. Tusc. 3, 6, 13 : de scorpionibus et catapultis, Vitr. 10, 22 : ut explicemus, quae sint materiae, etc., Quint. 10, 5, 1 .--Pass. impers.: quae vero auxilia sunt capitis, eo loco explicitum est, Cels. 4, 2 .--Hence,
▪ 1. explĭcātus , a, um, P. a.
◦ A. Lit., spread out: Capua planissimo in loco explicata, Cic. Agr. 2, 35, 96 : vallis, Pall. Aug. 11, 2 .--
◦ B. Trop.
▪ 1. Well ordered, regular: in causa facili atque explicata, Cic. Planc. 2, 5 .--
▪ 2. Plain, clear: nisi explicata solutione non sum discessurus, Cic. Att. 15, 20, 4 .--Comp.: litterae tuae, quibus nihil potest esse explicatius, nihil perfectius, Cic. Att. 9, 7, 2 .-- Sup.: explicatissima responsa, Aug. Ep. 34 fin. --
▪ 3. Assured, certain: nec habet explicatam aut exploratam rationem salutis suae, Cic. Fam. 6, 1, 2 .--* Adv.: explĭ-cāte , plainly, clearly: qui distincte, qui explicate, qui abundanter et rebus et verbis dicunt, Cic. de Or. 3, 14, 53 .--Comp.: explicatius, August. Civ. D. 19, 4 .--
▪ 2. explĭ-cĭtus , a, um, P. a. (acc. to II. B. 1.), lit., disentangled, i. e. free from obstacles, easy: in his erat angustiis res: sed ex propositis consiliis duobus explicitius videbatur, Ilerdam reverti, Caes. B. C. 1, 78, 2 .!*? explĭcit , in late Lat., at the end of a book, is prob. an abbreviation of explicitus (est liber), the book is ended (acc. to signif. II. B. 1.); cf.: explicitum nobis usque ad sua cornua librum refers, Mart. 11, 107, 1 : solemus completis opusculis ad distinctionem rei alterius sequentis medium interponere Explicit aut Feliciter aut aliquid istius modi, Hier. Ep. 28, 4.
I'm writing in Latin hoping for correction, and not because I'm confident in how I express myself. Latinè scribo ut ab omnibus corrigar, non quod confidenter me exprimam.
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Re: Latinists!

Postby Quis ut Deus » Fri Apr 10, 2009 3:26 am

Adrianus,

Salve et gratias tibi ago!

By the way, how do you say, "Oh my God! That was a lot!" :?
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Re: Latinists!

Postby thesaurus » Fri Apr 10, 2009 5:39 am

"Deum, tam multum!"

I wouldn't worry too much about the finer points of diction now. Of course, it's important to know when there are clear differences in usage between words you're writing. However, often it comes down to personal choice and there is rarely a "right" answer with writing/translation. I might use "explicate" or "explain" in an English essay interchangeably with no difference in meaning, and Latin authors assuredly did the same thing with their synonyms. Of course, the more technical the writing, the more nuanced certain words can become (like medieval scholastic philosophy) but that's another matter.

Noli irritari iamiam minimis de punctis verba optandi. Certè opus est scire discrimines manifesta inter verba quae adhibes, sed saepe fit ut quaedam libido nos ducat atque rarò unum verbum "rectum" omnibus praestat. Anglicè fortasse verbis "explicate" vel "explain" utar progymnasma pangendo sine ullo significationis discrimine atque auctores Latini hercule idem fecerunt synonymis suis utentes. Clarò litteris adoperatis vel abstrusis cautela adhibenda est ne verba disciplinâ propria confundantur, hoc autem est alibi.
Horae quidem cedunt et dies et menses et anni, nec praeteritum tempus umquam revertitur nec quid sequatur sciri potest. Quod cuique temporis ad vivendum datur, eo debet esse contentus. --Cicero, De Senectute
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Re: Latinists!

Postby adrianus » Fri Apr 10, 2009 11:13 am

A lot? No, too much! Yes, Thesaurus says it better because he says it more directly.
Multum? Immò, nimium! Ità est, Thesaure. Meliùs dicis quià distinctiús.
I'm writing in Latin hoping for correction, and not because I'm confident in how I express myself. Latinè scribo ut ab omnibus corrigar, non quod confidenter me exprimam.
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Re: Latinists!

Postby Quis ut Deus » Sun Apr 12, 2009 3:56 pm

Salvete!

Gratis vobis ago!

It's gonna take some time, but hopefully in a year or so, I'll be on my way.
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