I have been going through what I've done of Lingua Latina again over the past few days, and have encountered a few vocabulary issues. I fear that they're extremely simple issues, but nonetheless, I won't learn without being told
In chapter three, the word "quia" is introduced, meaning "because". In chapter ten, another word of the same meaning is introduced - "quod". Is one used in positive contexts and the other in negative ones, perhaps?
Exemplum primum: Mater Marcum verberat, quia Marcus puer improbus est.
Exemplum secundum: Homines ambulare possunt, quod pedes habent, neque volare possunt, quod alas non habent.
The meanings of the sentences themselves are absolutely clear to me, however the use of one word "quia" versus another "quod" is not clear to me. Is there a grammatical difference or is it some kind of nuance, or even personal preference?
There are a lot of word "pairs" which slightly confuse me in Latin, although I won't bore you with all of them. Perhaps they're all synonyms of each other?
quia = quod
cantare = canere
super = supra (Both + accusative, above?)
timere, horrere - I would imagine that here, horrere would just have a stronger meaning?
Also, in chapter twelve, we are introduced to what is fairly obviously an alternate construction for "habere" + accusative. That being, the dative of the person/thing involved, + esse. Again, is this just a stylistic thing?
Iulius sororem pulchram habet.
Iulio una soror pulchra est.
Thank you very much for taking the time to answer these questions.