Well, strictly speaking, the order of cases belongs to a grammatical tradition rather than to the language itself so I've seen different orders for the same language. I know for example that German grammars used to have a traditional Latin-like order, e.g. in the book at http://books.google.de/books?id=pnoKAAA ... #PPA237,M1
. Just for fun, I looked through various grammars I have (in English) for different languages and found:
German: Nom. Acc. Dat. Gen.
Russian: Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Instr. Prep.
Russian: Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Loc. Instr.
(Modern) Greek: Nom. Acc. Gen. Voc.
I guess people have reasons for the orders, but they're not really clear to me. Like with the traditional order, I don't really see the logic. I can see why the nominative would come first. At first I thought the genitive is second because of the tradition of identifying the declension class of a noun in terms of its nominative and genitive, but now, since the order goes way back, I wonder if it's the other way round and the genitive is used for identification because it comes second. Either way, why the order for the rest of the cases?
I know once principle that a lot of modern grammars use (and I think this is the traditional one in Sanskrit) is to order them so that cases that have the same (or similar) form in certain declensions are placed together. This isn't always possible, though, e.g. with German, the dative is usually the same as the nom. and acc. in the singular but in the plural the genitive is. I find this kind of order more useful as a learner but I'm not quite sure it actually is more useful.