Salve, Quis ut Deus, ac gratus adventus tuus!
1. et and que can be very similar in usage. However, "que" is used to conjoin pairs of things, whether nouns or semantic units. As you know, it is put on the end of the word that it would precede in English. So you'd have "terra mareque" for "land and sea," and "feles canisque" for "cat and dog." Sometimes you'll see que join together parallel phrases, but you still just need to think of it as "and."
2. Deponent verbs are in fact passive in form and active in nature. They are one of the more confusing points for beginning Latin learners. Why are they this way? , but there's no need to worry about it. If you know your passive verb endings and whether you're looking at deponent verb, then you're fine. Deponent verbs do take objects or all kinds, and they are just like regular verbs. For example, "arbitror te bonum esse" means "I think you are good." The only difference is that you can't make a deponent verb passive in meaning, by giving it active endings, for example. But all you need to know is that this isn't a problem because deponent verbs are the kind that you don't use in the passive in English anyways.
Keep up the good work. If you're reading the Vulgate you could be reading Caesar before you know it.
Horae quidem cedunt et dies et menses et anni, nec praeteritum tempus umquam revertitur nec quid sequatur sciri potest. Quod cuique temporis ad vivendum datur, eo debet esse contentus. --Cicero, De Senectute