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Ϝ in Homer

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Ϝ in Homer

Postby jeidsath » Wed Mar 29, 2017 1:25 am

Did Homer use the Ϝ (or something like it) in performing his poem? I read recently that it's just an artifact of his base of poetic material, and he wouldn't have ever pronounced it himself.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby mwh » Wed Mar 29, 2017 2:39 am

The erstwhile digamma is sometimes inoperative in Homer (i.e. the meter behaves as if it were non-existent), so it must have already fallen of use. It’s conceivable that it was still pronounced in some cases, but the evidence is against it.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby jeidsath » Wed Mar 29, 2017 4:35 pm

If that is the case, digamma should be buried in an inherited phrase nearly every time, right? If the distribution looked more random, you would suspect later editors instead.

For example, in this case, the following would be a completely inherited phrase:

ατρειδης τε ϝαναξ ανδρων και

If "ϝαναξ ανδρων" were all the poet had inherited, I would think that he would have naturally elided τε.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Paul Derouda » Wed Mar 29, 2017 7:01 pm

Actually this is somewhat similar to French "aspirated h". In French, the letter h is no longer pronounced, but in some cases (called "aspirated h" or "h aspiré) it has left vestiges and still causes hiatus at word boundary, preventing contraction and liaison from happening.

For example:
la hache (the axe)

However, in some cases the h doesn't affect pronunciation in any way ("h muet", "mute h") and is only an orthographic convention.

l'heure (the hour), pronounced exactly like l'Eure (a place name).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspirated_h
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Paul Derouda » Wed Mar 29, 2017 7:08 pm

What I mean is that even if ϝ is no longer be pronounced in Homer's time, it's quite possible that it still causes hiatus. What happens with present day French "h aspiré" is a good parallel.

Note that in both cases there are many exceptions to the rule. Homer doesn't always respect digamma, and in French, many native speakers make "mistakes", which shows that this sort of thing must be pretty unstable and will probably disappear from the language quite quickly.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby jeidsath » Wed Mar 29, 2017 7:42 pm

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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Timothée » Wed Mar 29, 2017 7:49 pm

The French parallel is an interesting way of understanding the question. The non-hiatising h- has, from the point of view of the French language, never been pronounced but is merely orthographic. The hiatus-inducing h (“h aspiré”) used to be pronounced in French but is no more; they are all loan-words, particularly from neighbouring Germanic languages. For example, haut ‘high’ is interesting as it derives from the Latin altus but was mixed with Germanic hoch uel sim., which gave its formerly pronounced and now hiatus-inducing h. Romanian, by the way, is the only Romance language I know which has the sound [h], which is fascinating.

An example near me and Paul: it should be Université de Helsinki, but I think Université d’Helsinki is nowadays more common.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Paul Derouda » Wed Mar 29, 2017 8:10 pm

French h is a mess, and only the "aspirated" ones are relevant here. I think with huile "oil" the h was added as an orthographic convention to distinguish from vil(e) "vile" at a period when v and u were not distinguished.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Paul Derouda » Wed Mar 29, 2017 8:13 pm

Just in case I still wasn't clear enough, the question is whether the finite article le/la is elided before a word beginning with h + vowel.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Timothée » Wed Mar 29, 2017 9:05 pm

In the same manner French huit ‘8’ has an orthographical h- to distinguish it from vit ‘lives’, and huis ‘door’ << Latin ōstium again has an added h- to distinguish it from vis ‘I live / thou livest / live thou!’. Homme has and an etymologic h-, whereas avoir hasn’t although it should have < Latin habēre (Italian avere, but Spanish haber). It’s indeed a mess.

Hodiē ‘today’ gives the obsolete hui, which has however been preserved in aujourd’hui, actually au jour de hui ‘on the day of today’, and in spoken French au jour d’aujourd’hui (!) can sometimes be heard, although it’s definitely not recommendable.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby mwh » Wed Mar 29, 2017 10:18 pm

Before this turns into a thread about French …

Joel, What the poets inherited were fixed and adaptable phrases in which τε αναξ (e.g.) was always three syllables: the metrical effect of the erstwhile digamma was built in, a persistent relic of an earlier stage of the language. (The aspirated or rather “aspirated” h in French is analogous up to a point.) More novel locutions were apt to be rather less true to tradition.

Editors don’t really come into it, any more than F does. In the written tradition conventions such as movable nu and double consonants often serve to eliminate what had become metrical irregularities consequent on loss of digamma (hiatus, for example, or εδ(δ)εισεν), but even that may reflect Homeric performance practice. What stayed unchanged was what was least amenable to modernization. Isn't that always the way?
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Timothée » Fri Mar 31, 2017 4:59 pm

Wasn’t there a Homeric edition (Iliad or Odyssey or even both?) from 1800’s I think with digammas printed? I’m sure I saw a page of it displayed by the teacher in my Greek metrics course. Do you know what and by whom it is (there can’t be many different ones, can there?) and could it by any chance be freely accessible online? Just for the sake of curio. I’m sure it’s already out of copyright. And I’m sure I have asked this from Paul in person but unfortunately forgotten his answer, for which I apologise.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Paul Derouda » Fri Mar 31, 2017 5:35 pm

At least Fick's edition, though I'm not sure if it's the only one or the first one.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby jeidsath » Fri Mar 31, 2017 5:39 pm

Here is Fick: https://archive.org/stream/diehomerisch ... 9/mode/2up

He seems to insert word-initial digamma in several place, but nothing for line 33.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Timothée » Fri Mar 31, 2017 6:36 pm

Thank you. How wonderfully quaint! A lot of psilosis and Doric α (μᾶνιν), as well. And you’re right, Joel, it should be ἔδϝεισε. Strange that Fick doesn’t mark it, as he should have known it. Fick’s preface might shed light on his editing principles, but he is obviously reconstructing according to his views.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby mwh » Fri Mar 31, 2017 10:22 pm

Richard Bentley, who (re)discovered the digamma in Homer, characteristically believed that all verses where it couldn’t be restored were corrupt. Some of his emendations have been confirmed by papyri and have rightfully gained a place in the text (without a written digamma, of course). Between him and Fick towards the end of the 19th century were quite a number of scholars (mostly German and Dutch) who made important follow-up investigations and discoveries; they often wrote the digamma when quoting Homer, and many of them believed that Homer himself wrote it too, but so far as I know Fick was the first (and I expect the only) scholar to produce whole editions with it. That's certainly what he's best known for.

Fick himself influentially believed—on good evidence—that the poems were in Aeolic before being converted where possible into Ionic (the thesis is still widely accepted today), and he deemed digamma Aeolic (as indeed it is), in conformity with ancient doctrine. Psilosis and “Doric” alpha also Aeolic of course. The result may look “quaint” to us, but it was underpinned by serious and groundbreaking scholarship.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Hylander » Fri Mar 31, 2017 11:21 pm

"the poems were in Aeolic before being converted where possible into Ionic (the thesis is still widely accepted today),"

Isn't the current version of the Aeolic hypothesis that the tradition, particularly the epic diction and formulas, and not the poems themselves, was originally Aeolic but eventually taken over by Ionic aoidoi, and the formulas and diction were converted into Ionic where possible b ut remained Aeolic where the Ionic form would not be metrical?

I think the 1895 edition of van Leeuwen and Costa prints the digamma, too.

And Ionic was as psilotic as Aeolic. I understood that rough breathings were added at some point, maybe even in the Byzantine era, to words that had them in Attic, but not to Ionic words that didn't exist in Attic.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby mwh » Sat Apr 01, 2017 2:28 am

Welcome back Hylander. You’ve been missed.

You’re right of course about the Aeolic thesis. In its modified form it’s the earlier epic tradition that was Aeolic, rather than the poems themselves as Fick thought. The chronology has been pushed back, but in both variants ionicization came later.

The basic thesis has been challenged by the idea that the poems represent a fundamentally Ionic tradition into which seeped forms from a parallel Aeolic tradition (again I simplify, and probably distort), and this competing “diffusionist” theory seems to have been gaining ground in recent years. But there are so many things in favor of an earlier Aeolic phase with subsequent Ionic overlay and partial replacement that I’m reluctant to accept it. Maybe some kind of synthesis will eventually be possible.

van Leeuwen too, yes, I'd forgotten him.

As to psilosis, it’s well recognized that that doesn’t necessarily point to Aeolic, since it was East Ionic too. It’s alphabets with a letter for h that count, of course—inscriptions. Even Attic was not uniform.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Hylander » Sat Apr 01, 2017 4:09 pm

A lot of psilosis and Doric α (μᾶνιν), as well.


I think Fick would call it Aeolic α. The raising of α to η was of course a sound change limited to Attic/Ionic (and only partial in Attic), and did not occur elsewhere in Greek, including in "Aeolic" in Asia Minor. I believe it is thought to have occurred relatively late (after 1000 BCE, which is around when the Greek in Asia Minor first came into contact with the Mada, whom later Greeks called Μηδοι).
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Timothée » Thu Apr 13, 2017 6:51 pm

I definitely didn’t mean to disrespect Fick. His work is great, but from today’s point of view it gives a “quaint” impression. I like quaint myself. I have added digammas in (small) part of Homer, mainly as an exercise, and tried to separate true ει [ei] and ου [ou] diphthongs from the long closed vowels ε̄ [ẹ] and ō [ọ], the distinction obscured by the (in other ways great) 404 BCE Attic-Ionic spelling reform.

I take your critique on “Doric α”. It was meant a short-hand for “α where Attic-Ionic would have η”, but I realise it is too misleading, as Homer doesn’t have so much Doric.

Is there a list anywhere that enumerates all the words that historically had Ϝ in them? Has it been ever compiled? It would be of great help as a reference. I suppose anyone could collect them oneself gradually as they appear in texts, but better maybe (and faster) if someone has already done it.
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby jeidsath » Thu Apr 13, 2017 11:42 pm

Maybe Knös has what you're looking for: https://archive.org/details/dedigammohomeri00kngoog
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby jeidsath » Fri Apr 14, 2017 2:02 pm

Cunliffe entires that contain a digamma somewhere in the entry text:

ἀάατος [perh., with ἀ- for ἀν-, ἀάϝατος, fr. ἀϝάω. See
ἀᾱγής, ές (ἀϝαγής) [ἀ- + (Ϝ)αγ-, ἄγνυμι]. Unbroken,
†*ἀάζω (ἀϝάζω) [ἀϝάτη, ἄτη]. 2 sing. aor. ἀ̆/ᾰσας
†ἄγνῡμι (ϝάγνυμι). 3 dual pres. ἄγνυτον Μ148. Fut. ἄξω
ἀ̄δεής (ἀδϝεής) [ἀ- + δ(Ϝ)έος]. Also ἀ̆δειής Η117.
ἀ̄δέω, also written ἁ̄δέω [prob. ἀ(σϝ)αδέω, to be
ἀεικής, ές (ἀϝεικής) [ἀ- + (Ϝ)είκω]. Dat. pl. ἀεικέσσι
ἀέκων, ουσα (ἀϝέκων) [ἀ- + (Ϝ)εκών].
ἀέλλη, ης, ἡ (ἀϝέλλη) [ἀ- + ϝελ-, [Ϝ)είλω].
ἀελπτέω (ἀϝελπτέω) [ἀ- + (Ϝ)έλπω]. To despair:
ἀέξω [ἀϝέξω. Cf. the later αὔξω].
ἀεργός (ἀϝεργός) [ἀ- + (Ϝ)έργον]. Not working or
ἀεσίφρων, ονος [perh. fr. weak stem ἀϝε- of ἄ(Ϝ)ημι +
†ἄημι (ἄϝημι) [cf. ἀΐω, ἰαύω]. 2 dual ἄητον Ι5. Pple.
ἀήσυλος [prob. for ἀϝίσυλος, fr. ἀ- + (Ϝ)ῖσος]. (Cf.
ἀΐδηλος, ον [ἀ- + (Ϝ)ιδ-, εἴδω. 'Making unseen'].
ἄϊδρις (ἄϝιδρις) [ἀ- + (Ϝ)ιδ-, εἴδω]. Ignorant,
αἴσυλος [prob. contr. fr. ἀ(Ϝ)ίσυλος, ἀήσυλος]. Absol.
ἅλις (Ϝάλις) [ἀλ-, (Ϝ)είλω].
†ἀμφιάχω [ἀμφ-, ἀμφι- (3)+(Ϝ)ι(Ϝ)άχω]. Acc. fem. pf.
ἀμφιέλισσα, ης [ἀμφι- (1) + (Ϝ)ελίσσω]. Epithet of
†ἀμφιέννῡμι [ἀμφι- (3) + (Ϝ)έννυμι]. Fut. ἀμφιέσω
ἀνάεδνος, ἡ [app. for ἀνέϜεδνος fr. ἀν- + ἔϜεδνα. See
ἄναξ, ακτος, ὁ (ϝάναξ). Voc. (besides ἄναξ) ἄνα Γ351,
ἄνασσα, ης, ἡ (Ϝάνασσα) [fem. of ἄναξ]. Queen,
ἀνάσσω (Ϝανάσσω) [ἄναξ]. 3 sing. fut. ἀνάξει Τ104, 122,
†ἁνδάνω ((σ)Ϝανδάνω) [σϜαδ-. Cf. ἡδύς, L. suavis]. 3
ἀνιπτόπους, ποδος [ἀ- + νιπ-, ϝίζω + πούς]. With
ἀολλής, ές (ἀϜολλής) [ἀ- + Ϝελ-, (Ϝ)είλω]. Only in pl.
†ἀπαυράω. Impf. ἀπηύρων Ι131, Τ89, Ψ560, 808: ν132. 2
ἀπόερσα, aor. (ἀπόϜερσα) [ἀπο- (1). For the second
ἀπτοεπής [prob. (Ϝ1]ι-(Ϝ1]άπτω as in προϊάπτω + ἔπος].
ἄριστον, τό [prob. ἀϝερ-ιστον. Cf. ἠ(ϝ1]έριος. 'The
ἄρνα, τόν, τήν (Ϝάρνα) [no nom. sing. occurs. Acc. of
ἄστυ, εος, τό (Ϝάστυ). A town or city (used as = πόλις
ἀ̄τέω (ἀϜατέω) [ἀϜάτη, ἄτη]. To act rashly or
ἄ̄τη, ης, ἡ (ἀϜάτη).
αὐερύω (ἀϜϜερύω) [ἀϜ-, ἀνα- (1) (3) + Ϝερύῶ, ἐρύω]. 3
αὐΐαχος (ἀϜϜίϜαχος) [ἀ- + ϜιϜαχ-, ἰάχω]. With united
αὔριον [conn. with ἠ(ϝ1]έριος].
ἀϋτμή, ῆς, ἡ [ἀϋ-τ-μή. ἀϜ-, ἄ(ϝ1]ημι].
αὔω [ἀϜ-, ἄ(ϝ1]ημι]. 3 sing. aor. ἤϋ̄σε Ε784, Θ227,
βείομαι, βέομαι [prob. for βίομαι, subj. fr. βι(ϝ1]-,
βίος, ου, ὁ [βιϜ-]. One's life, course of life, manner
βουγά̄ϊος [app. a compound of βοῦς, perh. in intensive
βοῦς, βοός, ὁ, ἡ (βοϜ-. Cf. L. bovis). Acc. βῶν Η238.
γαίω [γαϝ-. Cf. ἀγαυός and L. gaudeo]. Only in phrase
γουνός [perh. fr. γονϜ-, γόνυ, in sense 'swell,'
δᾱήρ, έρος, ὁ (δαϜήρ). Voc. δᾶερ (see below). Genit.
δαίω [δαϜ-, δηϜ-, δαυ-]. 3 sing. pf. (in pres. sense)
†δείδοικα (δέδϜοικα), pf. with pres. sense. 1 sing.
δειλός, ή [δϜι-, δείδοικα].
δεῖμα, τό [δϜι-, δείδοικα]. Fear, terror Ε682.
δεινός, ή, όν [δϜι-, δείδοικα].
δέος, τό (δϜι-, δείδοικα]. Genit. δείους Κ376, Ο4.
δεύω (δέϜω). 3 sing. aor. ἐδεύησε ι483, 540. Also in
δήϊος, ον (˘%40) [conn. with δαίω. Perh. orig. δά̆Ϝιος.
δήν (δϜήν). For a long time, for long, long: ἀκέων δ.
δίον, aor. [δϝι-, δείδοικα]. To be afraid Ε566, Ι433,
δόρυ, τό. Genit. δουρός (for δορϜός) Γ61, Ρ295, Ψ529,
δρίος [δρῦς. For δρϜ-ος]. A coppice ξ353.
ἑᾰνός, οῦ, ὁ (Ϝεσανός) [Ϝέσνυμι, ἕννυμι]. With ἐ-
ἔαρ, ἔαρος, τό (Ϝέαρ. Cf. L. ver). The spring: ἔαρος
ἑάφθη, 3 sing. aor. pass. [prob. fr. (Ϝ)ι-(Ϝ)άπτω. See
ἕδνα, τά (Ϝέδνα) [prob. conn. with (σϜ)ανδάνω, and
ἑέ (ἐϝέ). Acc. ἑέ Υ171, Ω134. ἕ Δ497, Ξ162, Ο241, etc.:
ἔθνος, τό (Ϝέθνος).
εἰαρινός, ή, όν (Ϝειαρινός) [(Ϝ)έαρ, with the ἐ
εἶδαρ, ατος, τό [ἐδ-Ϝαρ, fr. ἐδ-, ἔδω].
εἶδος (Ϝεῖδος) [εἴδω]. (One's general bodily)
†εἴδω [Ϝιδ-. Cf. L. video].
εἴκελος, η, ον (Ϝείκελος) [εἴκω. Cf. ἴκελος, E)I/+SKW].
εἴκοσι, indeclinable (Ϝείκοσι). Also, with prothetic ἐ,
†εἴκω (Ϝείκω) [Ϝικ-]. 3 sing. impf. εἶκε Σ520. 3 sing.
εἴκω (Ϝείκω) [cf. L. vicis]. 3 sing. aor. εἶξε Ω100. 3
†εἰλύω [ϜελϜ-, Ϝελυ-. Cf. εἴλω]. Fut. εἰλύ̄σω Φ319. 3
εἴλω, εἰλέω (Ϝείλω, Ϝειλέω) [Ϝελ-, ϜελϜ-. Cf. εἰλύω,
εἷμα, ατος, τό (Ϝέσ-μα) [ἕννυμι].
εἰνάετες [εἰνα- (prob. = ἐνϜα-, ἐννέα) + ἔτος]. For
εἴνατος [prob. for ἔνϜατος fr. ἐννέα]. = ἔνατος. The
εἰνοσίφυλλος [ἐνϜοσι- (ἐν- (3) + Ϝοθ-, ὠθέω) + φύλλον.
εἶπον, ἔειπον, aor. (Ϝεῖπον, ἔϜειπον) [cf. (Ϝ)έπος]. 2
†εἴρω (Ϝείρω. Cf. L. verbum, Eng. word). In pres. only
†εἰσείδω, ἐσείδω [εἰσ- (4), ἐσ-]. Aor. ἐσεῖδον (ἐσϜ-)
ἐΐσκω (ϜεϜίσκω) [app. for ϜεϜίκσκω, fr. Ϝικ-, εἴκω. Cf.
ἑκάεργος (ϜεκάϜεργος) [ἑκάς + ἔργω]. The farworker, the
ἑκάς (Ϝεκάς).
ἕκαστος, η, ον (Ϝέκαστος).
ἑκάτερθε(ν) (Ϝεκάτερθε) [Ϝεκ-, ἕκαστος].
ἑκατηβελέτης (Ϝεκατηβελέτης) [ἑκατη- (see next) + βελ-,
ἑκατηβόλος (Ϝεκατηβόλος) [ἑκατη-, conn. with ἑκάς +
ἕκατος (Ϝεκ-) [a short or 'pet' form of ἑκατηβόλος]. =
ἑκηβόλος (Ϝεκηβόλος) [ἑκη-, ἑκάς + βολ-, βάλλω]. =
ἕκηλος (Ϝέκηλος) [cf. ἑκών, εὔκηλος].
ἕκητι (Ϝέκητι) [cf. ἑκών]. By the grace or aid of. With
ἑκυρή, ῆς, ἡ (σϜεκυρή). A mother-in-law Χ451, Ω770.
ἑκυρός, οῦ, ὁ (σϜεκυρός). A father-in-law Γ172, Ω770.
ἑκών (Ϝεκών) [cf. ἕκηλος, ἕκητι].
ἔλδομαι (Ϝέλδομαι). Also, with prothetic ἐ, ἐέλδομαι
ἑλίκωψ, ωπος, ὁ (Ϝελίκωψ) [prob. (Ϝ)ελικ-, ἑλίσσω +
ἑλίσσω (Ϝελίκ-σω) [cf. εἴλω]. Aor. pple. ἑλίξας Ψ466. 3
ἕλκω (Ϝέλκω). (ἀν-, ἐφ-, ἐφ-, παρ-, ὑφ-.)
ἐλλεδανός, ὁ [(Ϝ)ελϜ-, (Ϝ)ελυ- as in εἰλύω]. A band for
ἐλπίς, ίδος, ἡ (Ϝελπίς) [ἔλπω]. Hope π101, τ84.
ἔλπω (Ϝέλπω). Pf. ἔολπα, -ας (ϜέϜολπα) Υ186, Φ583,
ἐλπωρή, ῆς, ἡ (Ϝελπωρή) [ἔλπω]. Hope. With fut. infin.:
ἐννέα, indeclinable (ἐνϜέα) [cf. L. novem, Eng. nine].
ἐννοσίγαιος (ἐνϜοσίγαιος) [ἐνϜοσι- (ἐν- (1) or (3) +
†ἕννῡμι (Ϝέσ-νυμι. Cf. L. vestis). Fut. ἕσσω ν400,
ἐνοσίχθων, ονος [for ἐνϜοσίχθων, fr. ἐνϜοσι- as in
ἕξ, indeclinable (σϜέξ) [cf. L. sex, Eng. six]. Six
†ἐπιάχω [ἐπι- (5)]. 3 pl. impf. ἐπί̄αχον (or rather
ἐπιεικής [ἐπι- (19) + (Ϝ)είκω].
ἐπιεικτός, όν [app. ἐπι- (4) + (Ϝ)είκω. For the form
ἐπιήρανος [ἐπι- (19) + (Ϝ)ήρ. Cf. ἐρίηρος]. Pleasing,
ἐπιίστωρ, ορος, ὁ [ἐπι- (5) + (Ϝ)ισ-, οἶδα. See εἴδω
ἔπος, τό (Ϝέπος). [Cf. (Ϝ)εῖπον.] Dat. sing. ἔπεϊ Ε879.
ἐργάζομαι [(Ϝ)έργον].
†ἔργνῡμι [= (Ϝ)έργω]. 3 sing. impf. ἐέργνῡ. To shut
ἔργον, ου, τό (Ϝέργον) [cf. (Ϝ)έρδω].
ἔργω, and, with prothetic ἐ, ἐέργω, contr. to εἴργω Ψ72
ἔρδω, ἕρδω (Ϝέρδω) [Ϝεργ-, Ϝέργςw. Cf. (Ϝ)έργον,
ἐρίηρος [ἐρι- + (Ϝ)ήρ. Cf. ἐπιήρανος]. Pl. ἐρίηρες.
ἔρρω (Ϝέρρω).
ἕρση, ης, ἡ (Ϝέρση). Except in ι222 with prothetic ἐ,
†ἐρύω (Ϝερύω). Pres. pple. ἐρύων, -οντος Δ467, 492,
ἐσθής, ῆτος, ἡ [Ϝέσ-νυμι, ἕννυμι].
ἔσθος, τό [Ϝέσ-νυμι, ἕννυμι]. A garment Ω94.
ἑσπέριος [(Ϝ)έσπερος].
ἕσπερος, ὁϜέσπερος. Cf. L. vesper).
ἔτος, τό (Ϝέτος. Cf. L. vetus). A year
εὔκηλος [app. ἐϜέκηλος, ἔϜκηλος. Cf. (Ϝ)έκηλος]. =
ἐφέπω [ἐφ-, ἐπι- (5) (11) + ἕπω]. 3 pl. pa. iterative
†ἐφί̄ημι [ἐφ-, ἐπι- (11) + ἵημι]. Only in mid. Fut.
ἡδύς, ἡδεῖα, ἡδύ. Also fem. ἡδύς μ369 [σϜαδ- as in
ἠέ (ἠϝέ), ἤ.
ἠέριος, η (ἠϜέριος) [ἀϜερ-. Cf. ἠώς, ἄριστον, αὔριον,
ἦθος, τό [conn. with ἔθω and orig. σϜῆθος]. In pl., the
ἧλος, ου, ὁ [Ϝῆλος. Cf. L. vallus]. A nail or stud used
ἡμιδαής [ἡμι- + δα(ϝ)-, δαίω]. Half-burnt Π294.
ἤρ (Ϝήρ) [referred to var, to choose, wish]. What is
ἦρι [ἀϜερ-. See ἠέριος]. Early in the morning Ι360:
ἠχή, ῆς, ἡ (Ϝηχή) [cf. (Ϝ)ι(ϝ)άχω, (Ϝ)ι(ϝ)αχή]. Sound,
ἠχήεις, εσσα (Ϝηχήεις) [(Ϝ)ηχή]. Sounding. Epithet of
ἠώς, οῦς, ἡ (ἠϜώς) [ἀϜοσ-. Cf. ἠέριος]. Dat. ἠοῖ (ἠόϊ)
†θάομαι [θαϜ-. Cf. θαῦμα, θηέομαι]. 3 pl. aor. opt.
θαῦμα, τό [θαϜ- as in θάομαι].
θεοειδής (θεοϜειδής) [θεός + (Ϝ)εῖδος]. Divine of form,
θεοείκελος (θεοϜείκελος) [θεός + (Ϝ)είκελος]. Like the
θεουδής (θεοδϜής) [for θεοδϜεής fr. θεός + δϜ-,
θεσπιδαής, ές (θεσπιδαϜής) [θε-σπ- as in θεσπέσιος
θέω [θεϜ-]. Also θείω [prob. for θή(ϝ)ω, fr. θηϜ-, long
†θηέομαι [θαϜ-. Cf. θάομαι]. 2 sing. opt. θηοῖο Ω418. 3
θοός, ή, -όν [θεϜ-, θέω].
ἰάπτω [app. distinct fr. (Ϝ)ι(ϝ)άπτω. See ἑάφθη,
ἰαύω (ἰάϜω) [redup. fr. ἀϜ-, ἄ(ϝ)ημι]. 3 sing. pa.
ἰαχή, ῆς, ἡ (ϜιϜαχή) [ἰάχω]. A shouting Δ456, Μ144 =
ἰάχω (ϜιϜάχω). [For the impf. forms, 3 sing. ἴ̄αχε and
ἴδιος, η, -ον [conn. with (Ϝ)ε, ἑ. See ἑέ]. Private,
ἰ̄δίω [σϜιδ-. Cf. Eng. sweat]. To sweat υ204.
ἰδρείη, ης, ἡ (Ϝιδρείη) [ἴδρις]. Skill: ἰδρείῃ πολέμοιο
ἴδρις (Ϝίδρις) [(Ϝ)ιδ-, οἶδα. See εἴδω (C)]. Skilled,
ἵ̄ημι (Ϝίημι). Only in mid. Fut. εἴσομαι (Ϝίσομαι) Ξ8,
ἴκελος, η, -ον (Ϝίκελος) [ἰκ-, εἴκω]. = εἴκελος (1):
Ἰλιόθεν (ῑ) (Ϝιλιόθεν) [-θεν (1)]. From Ilios Ξ251:
Ἰλιόθι (ῑ) (Ϝιλιόθι) [-θι]. As locative of Ἴλιος:
ἰ̄νίον (Ϝινίον) [ἰν-, ἴς]. The double tendon running up
ἰοδνεφής, ές (Ϝιοδνεφής) [ἴον + δνεφ-, δνοφ-, δνόφος.
ἰόεις, εντος (Ϝιόεις) [ἴον]. = prec. Epithet of iron.
ἴον, ου, τό (Ϝίον. Cf. L. vio-la). The blue violet.
ἰ̄οχέαιρα (ἰοχέϜαιρα) [ἰός + χεϜ-, χέω]. Shedder of
ἴ̄ς, ἰ̄νός, ἡ (Ϝίς) [ἴς, ἶφι, ἴφιος show resemblances,
ἰ̄σάζω (Ϝισάζω) [ἶσος]. 3 sing. pa. iterative mid.
ἴσκω (Ϝίσκω) [app. for Ϝίκσκω, fr. Ϝικ-, εἴκω. Cf.
ἰ̄σόθεος (Ϝισόθεος) [ἶσος + θεός]. Godlike, like the
ἶσος, η, -ον (Ϝῖσος). Also (always in fem. and only in
ἴστωρ, ορος, ὁ (Ϝίστωρ) [ἰστ-, οἶδα. See εἴδω (C) 'One
ἰ̄τέη, ης, ἡ (Ϝιτέη. Cf. L. vitex, Eng. withy). The
ἰ̆/τυς, ἡ (Ϝίτυς) [conn. with ἰτέη]. The felloe of a
ἴφθῑμος, ον, and (in sense (2)) -η, -ον [prob. not
ἶφι (Ϝῖφι) [see ἴς]. With or by might, power, force:
ἴ̄φιος (Ϝίφιος) [see ἴς]. Epithet of sheep, well-grown,
καίω (καϜ-, κηϜ-, καυ-). Aor. ἔκηα (ἔκηϜα) Α40, Θ240. 3
καλαῦροψ, οπος, ἡ [perh. fr. κάλος in sense 'string'
†καταέννῡμι [κατα- (5)]. 3 pl. impf. καταείνυσαν
κατᾱρῑγηλός [κατα- (5)] + (Ϝ>ριγηλός in sim. sense,
†καταρρέζω [app., κατα- (1) + (Ϝ>ρέζω, though it is
καταρρέω [κατα- (1) + (σ>ρέ(ϝ>ω]. To flow down: αἷμα
καῦμα, ατος, τό [καϜ-, καυ-, καίω]. Heat, hot weather:
καύστειρα, ης [fem. of *καυστήρ, fr. καϜ-, καυ-, καίω].
κεινός, ή, -όν [κενϜός] Γ376, Δ181, Λ160, Ο453. Also
κήλειος [prob. for καυάλεος or κηάλεος fr. καϜ-, καίω].
κῆτος, τό [καϜ-. Cf. L. cavus and κοῖλος. Orig. sense
κηώδης [*κῆϜος, incense, fr. κηϜ-, καίω + ὀδ-, ὄζω].
κηώεις, εντος [*κῆϜος. See prec.]. = prec. Γ382, Ζ288,
κλαίω [κλαϜ-]. Dat. pl. masc. pple. κλαιόντεσσι μ311. 3
κλαυθμός, οῦ, ὁ [κλαϜ-, κλαυ-, κλαίω]. Weeping,
κλείω [κλεϜέω, fr. κλέ(ϝ>ος]. Also κλέω. Fut. κλείω
κλέος, τό (κλέϜος). Acc. pl. κλέα (for κλέεα) Ι189,
κοῖλος, η, -ον (κόϜιλος. Cf. L. cavus and κῆτος).
κοτήεις [prob. for κοτέσϜεις fr. κοτεσ-, κοτέω].
κυνέη, ης, ἡ [commonly taken as fem. of κύνεος (sc.
λᾱός, οῦ, ὁ (λαϜός).
λεῖος, η, -ον (λεῖϜος. Cf. L. lêvis). Smooth, free from
λευρός [λεϜ-ρός. Cf. λεῖος]. With even surface, level:
λοετρόν, τό (λοϜετρόν) [λοϜ-, λούω]. In pl., water for
†λούω (λόϜω) [λοϜ-. Cf. L. lavo]. 3 sing. aor. λοῦσε
λυσσώδης [app. for λυσσοϜείδης, fr. λύσσα + (Ϝ)εῖδος].
†μεθίημι [μεθ-, μετα- (1) + ἵημι]. Only in mid. Aor.
νάω (σνάϜω). To flow Φ197: ζ292.
νέατος, νείατος, η [superl. Cf. νείαιρα, νειόθεν,
νέος, η, -ον (νέϜος).
νέω [σνυ-]. 3 pl. impf. ἔννεον (ἔσνεϜον) Φ11. To swim:
νήδυμος [no doubt (Ϝ)ήδυμος = ἡδύς (cf. καλός,
νῆις, ιδος [νη- + (Ϝ)ιδ-, εἴδῳ. Lacking knowledge,
νηῦς, ἡ [cf. L. navis]. Genit. νηός (νηϜός) Α439, Θ515,
οἰέτης [ὀ = ἀ- + -ι- (app. representing lengthening
οἶκος, ου, ὁ (Ϝοῖκος. Cf. L. vicus).
οἶνος, ου, ὁ (Ϝοῖνος. Cf. L. vinum, Eng. wine). Wine
οἰνοχοέω [οἶνος + χοή]. Nom. pl. masc. pres. pple.
ὄϊς, ὁ, ἡ (ὄϜις. Cf. L. ovis). Genit. ὄϊος Ι207: δ764.
ὅλμος, ου, ὁ (Ϝόλμος) [Ϝελ-, (Ϝ)είλω]. App., a
ὀλοοίτροχος, ὁ [app. for ϜολοϜ-οί-τροχος, fr. Ϝελυ-,
ὀνειδίζω [ὄνειδος]. 2 sing. aor. ὀνείδισας Ι34. Imp.
οὐλαμός, οῦ, ὁ (Ϝουλαμός) [Ϝελ-, εἴλω]. A throng (of
οὖλος [ὁλ-Ϝος = the later ὅλος]. Whole, entire: ἄρτον
οὖλος, η [for Ϝολ-νος. Cf. L. vellus, Eng. wool].
ὄχεα, τά [Ϝεχ-. Cf. L. veho]. Instrumental (in


https://archive.org/details/CunliffeHomericLexicon
Joel Eidsath -- jeidsath@gmail.com

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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby jeidsath » Fri Apr 14, 2017 2:07 pm

LSJ entries with a digamma somewhere in the text.

There are some characters in the above that I can't paste to textkit, so I've linked it above. Here is my source:

https://archive.org/details/Lsj--LiddellScott
Joel Eidsath -- jeidsath@gmail.com

μὴ δ’ οὕτως ἀγαθός περ ἐὼν θεοείκελ’ Ἀχιλλεῦ
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Timothée » Fri Apr 14, 2017 8:05 pm

Thank you Joel, this is really wonderful. What modern technology renders possible—when someone with practice like yours uses it. And Knös would seem to be an example of the great German positivistic scholarship from the 19th century.

Happy Easter all!
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Re: Ϝ in Homer

Postby Paul Derouda » Fri Apr 14, 2017 8:41 pm

I wonder if Knös was really German. The work linked by Joel was published in Uppsala, Sweden. That doesn't need to mean of course that he wasn't part of a "German school" of philology (I think the whole of Scandinavia was more or less in the German sphere of influence in those days).

I actually spent five nights in Uppsala just a week ago on a course in myography and neurography (that doesn't probably mean much to you :) ). It's a very nice little city, though I had little time for tourism, the course being so intensive. If you ever were to visit the place, the Cathedral is a must!
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