Moreover, I've specially liked the idea of "expansion" that the author early introduces here, because many times I've been quite shocked with some odd simils, digressions and apparently unnecessarily lengthy passages at the most unexpected moments, that this idea of expansion could explain:
A major part of Homer's technique is expansion, which he uses for emphasis; a lengthy description of a scene or a long-winded speech must not be passed over as an irrelevant display of the poet's powers or the uncontrolled love of detail, but accepted as the poet's method of dignifying the present or the future action, and allowed its full impact.
And then he cites Austin:
Where the drama is most intense the digressions are the longest and the details the fullest.
I have not read enough yet, as to fully identify these emphasis, specially those which anticipate future actions, but the building of the raft, which I've just read in Book 5, is given by the author as one of the example passages in which Homer uses expansion, because the detailed description of the construction of the raft emphasize how much his escape means to Odysseus.
I left here some of the questions that I had reading Book 5:
3. οἱ δὲ θεοὶ θῶκόνδε καθίζανον, ἐν δ᾽ ἄρα τοῖσι
A) -δε is used though there is no notion of movement here.
33. ἀλλ᾽ ὅ γ᾽ ἐπὶ σχεδίης πολυδέσμου πήματα πάσχων
34. ἤματί κ᾽ εἰκοστῷ Σχερίην ἐρίβωλον ἵκοιτο,
35. Φαιήκων ἐς γαῖαν, οἳ ἀγχίθεοι γεγάασιν,
36. οἵ κέν μιν περὶ κῆρι θεὸν ὣς τιμήσουσιν,
37. πέμψουσιν δ᾽ ἐν νηὶ φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν,
38. χαλκόν τε χρυσόν τε ἅλις ἐσθῆτά τε δόντες,
39. πόλλ᾽, ὅσ᾽ ἂν οὐδέ ποτε Τροίης ἐξήρατ᾽ Ὀδυσσεύς,
40. εἴ περ ἀπήμων ἦλθε, λαχὼν ἀπὸ ληίδος αἶσαν.
B) Which construction are here (κεν + optative / future)? Why not just future?
99. Ζεὺς ἐμέ γ᾽ ἠνώγει δεῦρ᾽ ἐλθέμεν οὐκ ἐθέλοντα:
C) ἠνώγει would be pluperfect or imperfect (contracted)? I incline myself more to the pluperfect, though really I would have expected an aorist here.
130. τὸν μὲν ἐγὼν ἐσάωσα περὶ τρόπιος βεβαῶτα
131. οἶον, ἐπεί οἱ νῆα θοὴν ἀργῆτι κεραυνῷ
132. Ζεὺς ἔλσας ἐκέασσε μέσῳ ἐνὶ οἴνοπι πόντῳ.
D) How would you explain the perfect βεβαῶτα?
252. ἴκρια δὲ στήσας, ἀραρὼν θαμέσι σταμίνεσσι,
253. ποίει: ἀτὰρ μακρῇσιν ἐπηγκενίδεσσι τελεύτα.
254. ἐν δ᾽ ἱστὸν ποίει καὶ ἐπίκριον ἄρμενον αὐτῷ:
255. πρὸς δ᾽ ἄρα πηδάλιον ποιήσατο, ὄφρ᾽ ἰθύνοι.
256. φράξε δέ μιν ῥίπεσσι διαμπερὲς οἰσυΐνῃσι
257. κύματος εἶλαρ ἔμεν: πολλὴν δ᾽ ἐπεχεύατο ὕλην.
258. τόφρα δὲ φάρε᾽ ἔνεικε Καλυψώ, δῖα θεάων,
259. ἱστία ποιήσασθαι: ὁ δ᾽ εὖ τεχνήσατο καὶ τά.
260. ἐν δ᾽ ὑπέρας τε κάλους τε πόδας τ᾽ ἐνέδησεν ἐν αὐτῇ,
261. μοχλοῖσιν δ᾽ ἄρα τήν γε κατείρυσεν εἰς ἅλα δῖαν.
E) I spent some time with this passage about the construction of the raft, because there is a lot of specialized vocabulary that I didn't know in English, not even in Spanish!
After struggling with LSJ and wikipedia, I made an sketch in the paper, but I couldn't identify to which part of the raft belong the ἐπηγκενίδες:
(Sorry, that's the best I can do, I'm not better drawer than a mariner as you can see, please let me know if you see some error in the labels).
The other thing I didn't understand about the creation of the raft was: πολλὴν δ᾽ ἐπεχεύατο ὕλην.
276. τὴν [the constellation] γὰρ δή μιν ἄνωγε Καλυψώ, δῖα θεάων,
277. ποντοπορευέμεναι ἐπ᾽ ἀριστερὰ χειρὸς ἔχοντα.
F) ἐπί goes with ἀριστερά? Why is χειρός genitive?
289. ἐκφυγέειν μέγα πεῖραρ ὀιζύος, ἥ μιν ἱκάνει.
G) ἱκάνει is used here as if it were a past tense.
300. δείδω μὴ δὴ πάντα θεὰ νημερτέα εἶπεν,
H) I wonder which mode should be used with a verb of fearing when the thing feared is something that occurred in the past.
Since fear clauses can be interpreted as paratactic, as in Latin, I like to think them as two independent sentences: I fear + may that thing not happen!
Thus, I always think the second sentence as a wish, so I think that if I knew how to express a wish referring to a past action then this should resolve this question too.
419. δείδω μή μ᾽ ἐξαῦτις ἀναρπάξασα θύελλα
420. πόντον ἐπ᾽ ἰχθυόεντα φέρῃ βαρέα στενάχοντα,
421. ἠέ τί μοι καὶ κῆτος ἐπισσεύῃ μέγα δαίμων
422. ἐξ ἁλός, οἷά τε πολλὰ τρέφει κλυτὸς Ἀμφιτρίτη:
I) τί is not interrogative here, why then keeps its accent? The only thing I'd figured out was that it is part of a fear clause, which maybe is regarded as an indirect question, but even then the question would be "whether some monster may be send" and not "which monster".
174. περάαν => περᾶν (contr. from περάειν)
290. ἐλάαν => ἐλᾶν (contr. from ἐλάειν, from the poetic form ἐλάω of ἐλαύνω)
J) Just to confirm, the explanation here would be the same as for κεράασθε in viewtopic.php?f=22&t=61629?