hi, i think one of the most well-known ones is lhomond's de viris illustribus:http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/lhomond.viris.html
this is the one that smith adapted for the reading part of his principia latina course:http://archive.org/stream/principialati ... 2/mode/2up
here in paris bookmarkets i've seen lots of others from around the 1700s, uni textbooks, i got one called historia romanae: res memorabiles from 1780, it's also good.
there's also this i remember from a while ago: http://www.johnpiazza.net/latin_hist_reader.pdf
if it's more the city of rome itself that you're interested in reading about there's a book i found in a bookstore in rome once which i take with me each time to rome now, it's great - called breviarium urbis romae antiquae. the authors have divided up the city into its sections, given each section an introduction in latin, v readable, and then collect for each monument/area etc. the ancient quotes about it. so you can stand in front of trajan's column and look it up in the index and read all the stuff that the ancients said about it. direct interaction with the past texts. definitely worth tracking down.
these books only go up to ancient times though, i haven't looked for something in latin describing the history from medieval to renaissance times talking about the great papal and cardinal families like the book the families who made rome (in english not latin), if that's what you were looking for in latin i don't know (but i definitely recommend the families who made rome - you get a sense walking around rome which family's old power base you're currently walking through). cheers, chad