adrianus wrote:In "to be used", the "used" is adjectival, since we can say "to be too used" and "to be very used",—something you can only do with an adjective.
adrianus wrote:"To be born" is a simple passive of the verb "to bear", when it means "to bring forth, produce, give birth to" (OED): "She bore the baby on that day" vs "The baby was born on that day".
Sceptra Tenens wrote:"to be getting used to something". I wouldn't necessarily say that adjectival qualities make it adjectival
Sceptra Tenens wrote:"she is bearing a baby" is unused when referring to birth.
Damoetas wrote:You will go far astray if you try to use Greek and Latin grammatical categories to describe English.
adrianus wrote:Synonyma exacta "getting" vocabuli anglici // exact synonyms of "getting" here: "becoming", "beginning to be", "growing", "turning into one who is"
Synonyma exacta "used" vocabuli anglici // exact synonyms of "used" here: "accustomed", "habituated", "acclimatized", all of which can take + "too" or "very".
adrianus wrote:It certainly can be (and was), though "giving birth" is more common these days.
Certùm id dici licet, etiamsi "giving birth" moderniús.
"She bore a baby on that day, and when she was bearing the baby upstairs, the father was distributing cigars downstairs."
"She bears a baby on that day, and when she is bearing the baby upstairs, the father is distributing cigars downstairs."
adrianus wrote:It is perhaps a little egocentric to view "to be born" as an active verb in English and leave out the mother's agency.
Activâ voce nascor verbum anglicè concipi et matrem agentem omitti, nonnè id paenè cupiditatis sui vestigium est.
Sceptra Tenens wrote:They aren't "exact synonyms", though. None of these, not even "used", are adjectives - they are participles, and can be made active.
Sceptra Tenens wrote:"he was born by her" even looks wrong to me. My mind is telling me "borne, borne!", which shows how this is processed in my head
OED, Second edition, 1989; online version March 2012. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/16543, wrote:43. a. Of female mammalia, and esp. women: To bring forth, produce, give birth to (offspring).
44. The various forms of the pa. pple. had formerly no distinction of sense. In the earlier part of the 17th c., these were borne (usual), born, bore (rare). About 1660, borne (the only spelling in Shakespeare folio of 1623) was generally abandoned, and born (cf. torn adj., worn adj.) retained in all senses, with bore as a frequent variant (the latter perhaps not in sense of nātus). Dr. Johnson, in his various edd. from 1751 to 1773, says under bear n.1, ‘part. pass. bore or born,’ and the same is found in other dicts. and grammars of the period. But c1775, a different usage (which some writers or printers had observed as early as 1750) was established: bore (common in Addison, Swift, Thomson) was abandoned, borne was reinstated, and now used as the ordinary form, and born was restricted to a specific sense. Thus, borne is now the only pa. pple., active or passive, in senses 1 – 42 (he has borne a burden, the tree has borne fruit, the testimony borne by him); it is also used in sense 43 in the active always, and in the passive with by and name of the mother, that is when it has the literal sense of ‘brought forth.’ Born is used only in sense 43, and there only in the passive, when not followed by by and the mother; it has rather a neuter signification = ‘come into existence, sprung’ without explicit reference to maternal action; hence it is the form used adjectively, and figuratively. Cf. ‘She had borne several children, the children borne to him by this woman, born of the Virgin Mary, born in a stable, her first-born son, a lady born, new-born zeal, a flower born to blush unseen’.
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