my questions are connected to accents:
1. are all diphthongs considered long?
2. ultimately, how could i know that a vowel is long or not? i know that Williams has the long mark over the letter to let us know they are long. but, aren't these long marks absent when you normally write the word?
for example, how do i know that the [face=SPIonic] a [/face] in [face=SPIonic] h(me/ra [/face] is long? is it something that i just have to memorize and know? or is there a way i can tell that it is long?
just by looking at it i can mistakenly write it as [face=SPIonic] h(/mera [/face].
any help is greatly appreciated!