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Accusativus cum Infinitivo

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Accusativus cum Infinitivo

Postby sapz » Thu Apr 19, 2012 4:20 pm

Hi!

In LLPSI, Cap. XI the notion of accusatives with infinitives is introduced, for example:
"Puer medicum adesse videt", "Pueri Iuliam canere audiunt", "Dominus servum discedere iubet", "Quintus pedem dolere dicit", "Puerum dormire necesse est".

I seem to find three groups in those examples, perhaps by mistake.
In the first group, the infinitive simply "describes" the accusative, like an "active" adjective - however grammatically-speaking not true, for example: "Puer medicum adesse videt", "Pueri Iuliam canere audiunt".

In the second group, the infinitive describes, or adds to the verb. Like in "Dominus servum discedere iubet".

But the third group is what I can't seem to fully understand. Is this a "that" clause, in "Quintus pedem dolere dicit" or "Puerum dormire necesse est"? "Quintus says THAT the foot hurts", "It is a necessity THAT the boy sleeps"?

How do you differentiate between those three groups when meeting new verbs?

Thank you!
sapz
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Re: Accusativus cum Infinitivo

Postby adrianus » Fri Apr 20, 2012 10:52 am

audire videre jubere dicere

All these verbs take indirect speech in Latin and can be construed in English with "that" (see that, hear that, order that, say that). See A&G, §579ff.

"Necesse est" can take an infinitive as its subject with its predicate noun in the accusative (A&G §455.2a). (But you can think of that as with "that", also: "That the boy sleeps is necessary" or "It is necessary that a boy sleeps".)

Omnia haec sunt verba quae orationi obliquae latinè serviunt possuntque construi cum anglicè "that". Vide istius grammaticae de A&G sectionem quingentesimam septuagesimam novam et sequentes.

De "necesse est", subjectum est infinitivum cuius nomen praedicativum accusativo casu (vide A&G, sectionem quadringentesimam quinquagesimam quintam, notam secundam, partem a.
I'm writing in Latin hoping for correction, and not because I'm confident in how I express myself. Latinè scribo ut ab omnibus corrigar, non quod confidenter me exprimam.
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Re: Accusativus cum Infinitivo

Postby sapz » Mon Apr 23, 2012 8:52 am

Thank you very much Adrianus!

I'll try to throw in another question...
I just saw that "imperat" and "paret" accept a dative after them, like "Dux exercitui imperat" or "Iulius servo imperat", where the dative declares the recipient of the order (nominative gives an order to dative), so I was wondering: does it apply to "iubet" or "dicit" as well?
It seems logical that "Iulius filio dormire dicit" would be a correct structure, but in the case of "iubet" I've seen the sentence "Dominus servum discedere iubet", where "servum" takes the accusative.

Thanks :D
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Re: Accusativus cum Infinitivo

Postby adrianus » Mon Apr 23, 2012 10:09 am

sapz wrote:I just saw that "imperat" and "paret" accept a dative after them, like "Dux exercitui imperat" or "Iulius servo imperat", where the dative declares the recipient of the order (nominative gives an order to dative), so I was wondering: does it apply to "iubet" or "dicit" as well?
It seems logical that "Iulius filio dormire dicit" would be a correct structure, but in the case of "iubet" I've seen the sentence "Dominus servum discedere iubet", where "servum" takes the accusative.


Rectum dicis. // You're right

dicere -->

"Julius filio dormire dicit" = "Julius tells [to] his son to sleep.
"Julius filium dormire dicit" = Julius says his son is sleeping.
"Julius ut filius dormiat dicit" = Julius says his son is sleeping.

The infinitive takes an accusative as its subject in reported speech.
Modus infinitivus accusativo casui ut subjecto suo per orationem obliquam servit.

jubere -->

qui jubet eos foràs exire = someone orders them to go outside
qui jubet ut ei foràs exeant = = someone orders them to go outside
qui jubet eos aliquid = someone orders them something
qui jubet ei aliquid = someone orders something to/on/upon another
qui jubet ei foràs exire = someone orders him to go outside

"Dominus servum discedere iubet" = "The master orders that the servant go now."
I'm writing in Latin hoping for correction, and not because I'm confident in how I express myself. Latinè scribo ut ab omnibus corrigar, non quod confidenter me exprimam.
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Re: Accusativus cum Infinitivo

Postby sapz » Wed Apr 25, 2012 10:55 am

Thank you very much, once again :D
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