I'm looking for help in trying to determine the most grammatically correct version of a motto used in a 16th Century Scottish coat of arms and the most appropriate translation.
Three forms of the motto exist:
Obdurandum adversus urgentia
Obduram adversus urgentia
Obdura adversus urgentia.
The original seems to have been the first version and appears to have been taken from Alciato's "Book of Emblems," published in 1531. This is the version carved in stone on Bishop Adam Bothwell's memorial plaque at Holyroodhouse Abbey, where he was interned in the Chapel Royale in 1593. The other two versions appear in various blazons published in books in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries, including Burke's "Genealogical History of the Dormant, Aberant, Forfeited and Extinct Peerages of the British Empire."
According to Glasgow University's Emblems project, the translation of the motto in Alciato's book is: "One must persist against oppressions." Other translations given by various sources include "Not yielding to provocations" and "Resolute against oppression."
Appreciate any help in determining which version of the motto, and which translation, is most appropriate and/or grammatically correct. Thanks.