For naturalis ordo
, "natural order" is what I'd say. The idea is that since by the natural order it occurs at regular times, it can be known beforehand and predicted. About the extended indirect speech, I find it helpful when taking apart sentences to figure out which infinitive represents the main verb of the direct speech and work from there. In this sentence it's posse
, basically "[he said that] since it..., it can be..."
In the next sentence, which is
too long, the main verb is debere
which directly governs trahere
. quem ad modum
, literally "to which way" (it's an example of how Latin puts the preposition between the adjective and the noun as in magna cum laude
), means "how" as a question but here means "just as" and governs mirarentur
. The structure of the sentence is "[he said that] therefore, just as they do not wonder that the moon..., since the risings and settings of the sun and moon are certain, so they should not ascribe even that the moon is obscured to an omen, when it is hidden by the shadow of the earth."
The date is just due to the crazy way Romans dated things. From A&G
On the seventh day of March, May, July, and October, but the fifth of the other months, were the Nōnae (Nones or ninths).
And then you count backwards one day (pridie
Just to mention, for videri
, this isn't indirect speech because it's subject sapientia
is in the nominative. In indirect speech, the subject is in the accusative, which you can't really see in this excerpt (id
could be either and the subject is implicit in the second sentence). Also, movit
is in the perfect tense so "disturbed."