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a lateral paraphrase of Galatians 1

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a lateral paraphrase of Galatians 1

Postby Markos » Fri Jan 24, 2014 5:58 pm

Below is my “lateral” paraphrase of Galatians 1. Unlike my “leveled” readings on the other thread, this paraphrase is not simplified. It is paraphrase for paraphrasing sake, produced on the assumption that a target language paraphrase has inherent pedagogical value. A lateral paraphrase (1) provides comprehensible input to those familiar with the original. (2) provides a way to interpret/understand a text without leaving the target language. (3) provides a mechanism for Greek composition without leaving the target language. It is probably more valuable to write a lateral paraphrase than it is to read one.

1Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, οὐκ ἀπ' ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲ δι' ἀνθρώπου ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν.

Παῦλος, κῆρυξ, οὔτε ἐκ θνητῶν, οὔτε ἀπο βροτοῦ, ἀλλὰ ἐκ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ καὶ θεοῦ Κυρίου τοῦ ἀνάσταντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν.

2καὶ οἱ σὺν ἐμοὶ πάντες ἀδελφοί, ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας:

καὶ πάντες οἱ συνεργοὶ μετὰ ἐμοῦ, τοῖς ἐν Γαλατίᾳ ἁγίοις.

3χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς καὶ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,

χαίρειν ἐν ὀνόματι θεοῦ πατρὸς καὶ ἡμετέρου κυρίου Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ,

4τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν ὅπως ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς ἡμῶν,

ὅς ἀπέθανε περὶ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν ἵνα σῳσῃ ἡμᾶς ἐκ τούτου τοῦ πονηροῦ κόσμου, κατὰ τὸ βούλημα τοῦ ἡμετέρου πατρός,

5ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων: ἀμήν.

ὅς παραλαμβάνει τὴν αἰωνίαν δόξαν: γένοιτο!

6Θαυμάζω ὅτι οὕτως ταχέως μετατίθεσθε ἀπὸ τοῦ καλέσαντος ὑμᾶς ἐν χάριτι Χριστοῦ εἰς ἕτερον εὐαγγέλιον,

θαῦμα δὴ ἔχει με διότι μάλιστα ταχέως στρεφέσθε ἀπο τοῦ ἐξελομένου ὑμᾶς κατὰ τὴν χάριν Χριστοῦ εἰς ἄλλο κήρυγμα,

7ὃ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο: εἰ μή τινές εἰσιν οἱ ταράσσοντες ὑμᾶς καὶ θέλοντες μεταστρέψαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ Χριστοῦ.

ἀλλὰ ἕτερον κήρυγμα οὐκ ἔστιν: μόνον δὲ εἰσίν τινες, οἱ ἐνοχλοῦντες ὑμᾶς καὶ βουλόμενοι διαστέφειν τὸ τοῦ Χριστοῦ κήρυγμα.

8ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐὰν ἡμεῖς ἢ ἄγγελος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ εὐαγγελίζηται ὑμῖν παρ' ὃ εὐηγγελισάμεθα ὑμῖν, ἀνάθεμα ἔστω.

ὁ δὲ ἄνθρωπος, εἰπὲρ ἐξ ἡμῶν, ὁ κηρύσσων ὑμῖν κήρυγμα ἐναντίον ᾧ ἐκηρύξαμεν ὑμῖν, ἀνάθεμα ἔσται.


9ὡς προειρήκαμεν, καὶ ἄρτι πάλιν λέγω, εἴ τις ὑμᾶς εὐαγγελίζεται παρ' ὃ παρελάβετε, ἀνάθεμα ἔστω.

ἐρήκοτες πρότερον, νῦν δεύτερον λέγομεν, ὁ κηρύσσων ὑμῖν ἐναντίον ᾧ ἐδεξάμεθα, ἀνάθεμα ἔσται.

10Ἄρτι γὰρ ἀνθρώπους πείθω ἢ τὸν θεόν; ἢ ζητῶ ἀνθρώποις ἀρέσκειν; εἰ ἔτι ἀνθρώποις ἤρεσκον, Χριστοῦ δοῦλος οὐκ ἂν ἤμην.

ἆρα δὲ νῦν ἡ πεισμονή μου παρὰ ἀνθρώποις ἢ τῷ θεῷ? ἢ θέλω ἀνθρώποις χαρίζεσθαι? εἰ ἔτι ἀνθρώποις ἐχαριζόμην, Χριστοῦ ὑπηρέτης οὐκ ἄν ὑπῆρχον.


11Γνωρίζω γὰρ ὑμῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τὸ εὐαγγελισθὲν ὑπ' ἐμοῦ ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον:

φράζω γὰρ ὑμῖν, φίλοι, ὅτι τὸ κήρυγμα τὸ κηρυχθὲν ὑπ' ἐμοῦ ἀνθρωπινὸν οὐκ ἔστιν.

12οὐδὲ γὰρ ἐγὼ παρὰ ἀνθρώπου παρέλαβον αὐτό, οὔτε ἐδιδάχθην, ἀλλὰ δι' ἀποκαλύψεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.

ἐκ γὰρ ἀνθρώπου οὐκ αὐτὸ ἔλαβον, οὔτε ἐδίδαξάν με ἄνθρωποι, ἀλλὰ αὐτὸ ἀποκάλυψεν Ἰησοῦς Χριστός.

13Ἠκούσατε γὰρ τὴν ἐμὴν ἀναστροφήν ποτε ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ, ὅτι καθ' ὑπερβολὴν ἐδίωκον τὴν ἐκκλησίαν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἐπόρθουν αὐτήν,

οἴδατε γὰρ τὰ ἔθη μοῦ ποτε ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ, ὡς λίαν διώκων τὴν κυριακὴν ἐκκλησίαν ἐθέλησα καταπορθῆσαι ἀυτήν.


14καὶ προέκοπτον ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ ὑπὲρ πολλοὺς συνηλικιώτας ἐν τῷ γένει μου, περισσοτέρως ζηλωτὴς ὑπάρχων τῶν πατρικῶν μου παραδόσεων.

καὶ προσχωροῦν καλῶς ἐν τῷ Ἰουδαϊσμῷ ὑπὲρ πολλοὺς φίλοις ἐν τῷ ἐμῷ γένει, πολὺ ζῆλος ἔχων τοῖς πατρικοῖς παραδοῦσι μου .


15ὅτε δὲ εὐδόκησεν ὁ θεὸς ὁ ἀφορίσας με ἐκ κοιλίας μητρός μου καὶ καλέσας διὰ τῆς χάριτος αὐτοῦ 16ἀποκαλύψαι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐν ἐμοὶ ἵνα εὐαγγελίζωμαι αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, εὐθέως οὐ προσανεθέμην σαρκὶ καὶ αἵματι,

ἐπεὶ δὲ ἤρεσε τῷ Κυρίῳ τῷ ἐξελομένῳ με ἐκ τῆς μήτρας καὶ φωνοῦντί με ὲν τῷ χάριτι αὐτοῦ ἀποκαλύψαι τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ εἰς ἐμέ ὅπως αὐτὸν κηρύσσω ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, εὐθὺς οὐ συνεβουλεύσατο τοῖς ἀνθρώποις,


17οὐδὲ ἀνῆλθον εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα πρὸς τοὺς πρὸ ἐμοῦ ἀποστόλους, ἀλλὰ ἀπῆλθον εἰς Ἀραβίαν, καὶ πάλιν επέστρεψα εἰς Δαμασκόν.

οὐτὲ ἀνέβη πρὸς Ἱεροσόλυμα εἰς τοὺς πρὸ ἐμοῦ ἀποστόλους, ἀλλὰ ἀνέβη πρὸς Ἀραβίαν, καὶ πάλιν ὑπέστρεψα πρὸς Δαμασκόν.


18Ἔπειτα μετὰ ἔτη τρία ἀνῆλθον εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἱστορῆσαι Κηφᾶν, καὶ ἐπέμεινα πρὸς αὐτὸν ἡμέρας δεκαπέντε:

μετὰ δὲ τρεῖς ένιαυτοὺς ἀνέβη πρὸς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἐπισκοπῶσαι Κηφᾶν, καὶ παρέμεινα παρ’ αὐτῷ πεντεκαίδεκα ἡμέρας.

19ἕτερον δὲ τῶν ἀποστόλων οὐκ εἶδον, εἰ μὴ Ἰάκωβον τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ κυρίου.

ἄλλῳ δὲ τῶν ἀποστόλων οὐκ ἠντίησα, ἀλλὰ μόνον Ἰάκωβον τὸν τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἀδελφὀν.

20ἃ δὲ γράφω ὑμῖν, ἰδοὺ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θεοῦ ὅτι οὐ ψεύδομαι.

ταῦτα δὲ λέγω ὑμῖν, ἴδετε ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν ἀλήθειαν γράφω.


21ἔπειτα ἦλθον εἰς τὰ κλίματα τῆς Συρίας καὶ τῆς Κιλικίας.

μετὰ ταῦτα, εἰς τὰ μέρη τῆς Συρίας καὶ Κιλικίας ἀπῆλθον

22ἤμην δὲ ἀγνοούμενος τῷ προσώπῳ ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Ἰουδαίας ταῖς ἐν Χριστῷ,

ἄγνωστος δὲ κατὰ πρόσωπον τοῖς τῆς Ἰουδαίας ἁγίοις τοῖς ἐν τῷ Κυρίῳ.

23μόνον δὲ ἀκούοντες ἦσαν ὅτι Ὁ διώκων ἡμᾶς ποτε νῦν εὐαγγελίζεται τὴν πίστιν ἥν ποτε ἐπόρθει,

μᾶλλον δὲ ἤκουσον ὅτι ὁ ἡμῶν καταδιωκτὴρ πρότερον νῦν κήρυσσει τὸ κήρυγμα ὃ πρότερον ἐλυμαίνεται.

24καὶ ἐδόξαζον ἐν ἐμοὶ τὸν θεόν.

καὶ τῷ Κυρίῳ πάρειχον δόξην διὰ ἐμοῦ.
I am writing in Ancient Greek not because I know Greek well, but because I hope that it will improve my fluency in reading. I got the idea for this from Adrianus over on the Latin forum here at Textkit.
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Re: a lateral paraphrase of Galatians 1

Postby Σαῦλος » Tue Jan 28, 2014 2:28 pm

Markos,

I really like this. It occurs to me that this is far more effective than any Greek to Greek dictionary could be. It has the same purpose, to give help to readers without leaving the target language. It is more pleasurable a tool to use than any dictionary could be. And, I think it's more feasible to produce than a dictionary.

I did one of our typical little stories in class yesterday (TPRS - 8 lines - Peter wants everything straight. Saul wants everything clear.). But inspired by your example, I handed out a lateral version of the story for them to read at home. I'll be interested to see what they have to say about it.

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Re: a lateral paraphrase of Galatians 1

Postby daivid » Sun Feb 02, 2014 4:01 pm

Markos wrote:Below is my “lateral” paraphrase of Galatians 1. Unlike my “leveled” readings on the other thread, this paraphrase is not simplified. It is paraphrase for paraphrasing sake, produced on the assumption that a target language paraphrase has inherent pedagogical value. A lateral paraphrase (1) provides comprehensible input to those familiar with the original. (2) provides a way to interpret/understand a text without leaving the target language. (3) provides a mechanism for Greek composition without leaving the target language. It is probably more valuable to write a lateral paraphrase than it is to read one.


I've googled a lateral paraphrase but that just brings me back here. What you have written above doesn't actually define what it is. Is it simply replacing core words with high frequency ones or does it involve shortening of the original and if so, how do you decide what to cut?
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Re: a lateral paraphrase of Galatians 1

Postby Markos » Mon Feb 03, 2014 8:32 pm

daivid wrote:I've googled a lateral paraphrase but that just brings me back here. What you have written above doesn't actually define what it is. Is it simply replacing core words with high frequency ones or does it involve shortening of the original and if so, how do you decide what to cut?


Hi, David:

I coined the term "lateral paraphrase" to distinguish it from (1) a simplified (or "leveled down") paraphrase and (2) an inter-dialectical paraphrase.

In a simplified paraphrase, you replace rare vocab with more familiar vocab and you simplify the syntax, word order, and size of the sentences. As a practical matter, one does indeed omit certain parts of the original that are too difficult to simplify. The best example of this is Phillpotts' simplified paraphrase of the Anabasis.

An inter-dialectical paraphrase has its own distinctive dynamic. For almost every Homeric word, there is an Attic-Koine equivalent, so it sort of writes itself. Inter-dialectical paraphrases are not "lateral" in that they are easier in one direction (Gaza's Epic to Koine) and harder in the other direction (Nonnus' Koine to Epic) because Epic is more difficult than Koine.

In a lateral paraphrase, you simply rewrite the original without regards for making it easier (or more difficult.) It takes less effort to write a lateral paraphrase than it does to write a simplified one. Ancient Greek is particularly well-suited for lateral paraphrase because there are so many synonyms and grammatical constructions that are different in form, but over-lap in meaning. The scholiasts and Ancient Greek commentators used lateral paraphrase from time to time. With the emergence of Grammar-Translation, it fell out of favor, or, perhaps more accurately, it never had a chance to develop as a pedagogical method.

In this blog

http://englishwithjennifer.wordpress.co ... aphrasing/

the case is made for the pedagogical value of paraphrasing in general. Here is an excerpt.

1.Paraphrasing activates vocabulary and develops the learner’s sense of appropriate word choice. The learner must think of synonyms, recall other word forms, and reflect on connotations.
2.Paraphrasing teaches synonymous grammatical structures.
3.Paraphrasing improves learners’ grasp of English syntax by requiring them to play around with it.
4.Paraphrasing raises a writer’s awareness of variation. Knowing how to reword a sentence can improve a composition by varying sentence length, sentence structure, and vocabulary.
5.Paraphrasing is needed in academic writing. Learners who are moving on to university courses need to be able to paraphrase quotes.
6.Paraphrasing emphasizes that forms convey our meaning, and meaning is most important in communication. The relationship between the two is that the more accurate we are with form, the greater chance we have of expressing our exact meaning.


To expand on #6, in paraphrasing Biblical Greek, one is struck by the fact that the meaning of the text is indeed independent of the form. You can in fact always use different words to express the same basic meaning, and I would argue that you should do this, and you should do this in Greek, as the best way to demonstrate that you understand the meaning. For me, a target language paraphrase betrays a text less than does a translation or a meta-language analysis.
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Re: a lateral paraphrase of Galatians 1

Postby daivid » Mon Feb 03, 2014 9:28 pm

Markos wrote:I coined the term "lateral paraphrase" to distinguish it from (1) a simplified (or "leveled down") paraphrase and (2) an inter-dialectical paraphrase.


In a lateral paraphrase, you simply rewrite the original without regards for making it easier (or more difficult.) It takes less effort to write a lateral paraphrase than it does to write a simplified one. Ancient Greek is particularly well-suited for lateral paraphrase because there are so many synonyms and grammatical constructions that are different in form, but over-lap in meaning. The scholiasts and Ancient Greek commentators used lateral paraphrase from time to time. With the emergence of Grammar-Translation, it fell out of favor, or, perhaps more accurately, it never had a chance to develop as a pedagogical method.


Ah, I get. So not just vocab but constructions as well. I may well try it myself sometime. Thanks
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