questions with Book 10. I'm still waiting West's commentary from
Amazon I hope it arrives to Argentina before Odysseus arrives to
Ithaca, for I've just ordered the second volume. Still then, that is
not the end, but there are usually a lot of difficulties awaiting to
the at the post office. I'm reading with Merry's commentary for the
- 17. ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ καὶ ἐγὼν ὁδὸν ᾔτεον ἠδ᾽ ἐκέλευον
18. πεμπέμεν, οὐδέ τι κεῖνος ἀνήνατο, τεῦχε δὲ πομπήν.
How would you explain the imperfect here?
- 28. ἐννῆμαρ μὲν ὁμῶς πλέομεν νύκτας τε καὶ ἦμαρ
I've checked two translations, and it called my atention that the
singular of ἦμαρ seems to be neglected:"For nine days we sailed, night and day alike"Nine days and nine nights did we sail,
Couldn't be just "nine nights and one day"?
- 65. ἦ μέν σ᾽ ἐνδυκέως ἀπεπέμπομεν, ὄφρ᾽ ἀφίκοιο
πατρίδα σὴν καὶ δῶμα καὶ εἴ πού τοι φίλον ἐστίν.’
I'd expect ὅτι instead of εἴ (introducing an indef. rel. clause).
- 100. δὴ τότ᾽ ἐγὼν ἑτάρους προΐειν πεύθεσθαι ἰόντας
προΐειν => προίην?
(imperf. 1st. sg.)
- 122. βάλλον: ἄφαρ δὲ κακὸς κόναβος κατὰ νῆας ὀρώρει
How would you explain the tense of ὄρνυμι here? I think that I've
already seen a similar use of the pluperfect before: I feel it as if
it were referring to something that happened so fast that the narrator
had no time to narrate its process, but only its
fulfillment. Something like "And just in a moment a dreadful din had
Something similar happens at 388 with βεβήκει:383. ‘ὦ Κίρκη, τίς γάρ κεν ἀνήρ, ὃς ἐναίσιμος εἴη,
384. πρὶν τλαίη πάσσασθαι ἐδητύος ἠδὲ ποτῆτος,
385. πρὶν λύσασθ᾽ ἑτάρους καὶ ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἰδέσθαι;
386. ἀλλ᾽ εἰ δὴ πρόφρασσα πιεῖν φαγέμεν τε κελεύεις,
387. λῦσον, ἵν᾽ ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἴδω ἐρίηρας ἑταίρους.
387. ὣς ἐφάμην, Κίρκη δὲ διὲκ μεγάροιο βεβήκει
"So I spoke, and Circe (by this time) had already gone and opened the
sties". Note how the immediacy of her action is denoted by the
Would you take the pluperfect this way?
- 128. αἶψα δ᾽ ἐμοῖς ἑτάροισιν ἐποτρύνας ἐκέλευσα
129. ἐμβαλέειν κώπῃς, ἵν᾽ ὑπὲκ κακότητα φύγοιμεν
Shouldn't ἐμβαλέειν be passive? "I bade my comrades throw themselves
to the oars".
- 179. ἐκ δὲ καλυψάμενοι παρὰ θῖν᾽ ἁλὸς ἀτρυγέτοιο
180. θηήσαντ᾽ ἔλαφον: μάλα γὰρ μέγα θηρίον ἦεν.
The subject of the first clause are the comrades of Odysseus. He has
surprised them with a huge deer that he have just hunted. I don't know
how to read ἐκ...καλυψάμενοι: why were they hidden in the first place?
- 199. κλαῖον δὲ λιγέως θαλερὸν κατὰ δάκρυ χέοντες:
200. ἀλλ᾽ οὐ γάρ τις πρῆξις ἐγίγνετο μυρομένοισιν.
"They wept aloud [...] but no profit became from their tears (lit. poured
[tears])". But I don't understand what explains γάρ.
I've tried to explain it thus: if μυρομένοισιν is metonymically
referring to their pains in general, and not their present tears, then
they are weeping because all their pains were in vain. What do you
The verse is repeated on 568, but I've the same question there
- 237. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δῶκέν τε καὶ ἔκπιον, αὐτίκ᾽ ἔπειτα[fn:33]
238. ῥάβδῳ πεπληγυῖα κατὰ συφεοῖσιν ἐέργνυ.
Why is πεπληγυῖα perfect, instead of aorist? "She struck them with her
bolt and put them into the sties".
- 239. οἱ δὲ συῶν μὲν ἔχον κεφαλὰς φωνήν τε τρίχας τε
240. καὶ δέμας, αὐτὰρ νοῦς ἦν ἔμπεδος, ὡς τὸ πάρος περ.
241. ὣς οἱ μὲν κλαίοντες ἐέρχατο, τοῖσι δὲ Κίρκη
Could explain me the form of ἐέρχατο?
- 280. ἔν τ᾽ ἄρα μοι φῦ χειρί, ἔπος τ᾽ ἔφατ᾽ ἔκ τ᾽ ὀνόμαζε
Which is the meaning of φύω here?
A similar use appears in this book at 397:397. ἔγνωσαν δέ μ᾽ ἐκεῖνοι ἔφυν τ᾽ ἐν χερσὶν ἕκαστος.
- 287. τῆ, τόδε φάρμακον ἐσθλὸν ἔχων ἐς δώματα Κίρκης
288. ἔρχευ, ὅ κέν τοι κρατὸς ἀλάλκῃσιν κακὸν ἦμαρ.
Hermes gives to Odysseus a φάρμακον that will protect him from
Circe's one. I'm not sure how to translate ἀλάλκῃσιν: I would expect
it to take a separative genitive, instead of an accusative, and I'd
expect a future indicative tense, instead of subjunctive.
- 290. τεύξει τοι κυκεῶ, βαλέει δ᾽ ἐν φάρμακα σίτῳ.
Could you explain the form of κυκεῶ?
- 297. ἔνθα σὺ μηκέτ᾽ ἔπειτ᾽ ἀπανήνασθαι θεοῦ εὐνήν,
298. ὄφρα κέ τοι λύσῃ θ᾽ ἑτάρους αὐτόν τε κομίσσῃ:
299. ἀλλὰ κέλεσθαί μιν μακάρων μέγαν ὅρκον ὀμόσσαι,
300. μή τί τοι αὐτῷ πῆμα κακὸν βουλευσέμεν ἄλλο,
301. μή σ᾽ ἀπογυμνωθέντα κακὸν καὶ ἀνήνορα θήῃ.
Hermes gives instructions to Odysseus about how he should behave with
Circe in order to free his comrades. I had problems with the last
verse: how should I take τίθημι + acc.?
The verse reappears at 341, where the facts actually take place, but
it doesn't help.
- 320.‘ἔρχεο νῦν συφεόνδε, μετ᾽ ἄλλων λέξο ἑταίρων.’
λέξο => λέξεο / λέξου?
- 327. οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδέ τις ἄλλος ἀνὴρ τάδε φάρμακ᾽ ἀνέτλη,
328. ὅς κε πίῃ καὶ πρῶτον ἀμείψεται ἕρκος ὀδόντων.
How should I take the double οὐδέ?
I only know two meanings for ἀμείβω: to reply, and to exchange. But
neither seems to apply here.
- 338. ἥ μοι σῦς μὲν ἔθηκας ἐνὶ μεγάροισιν ἑταίρους
σῦς => σύας? (for it goes with ἑταίρους plural).
- θυμὸν ἔδων, βρώμης δ᾽ οὐχ ἅπτεαι οὐδὲ ποτῆτος;
I'd like to read θυμὸν ἔδων as making a contrast with βρώμη: thus, he
would be so sorrowful that he consumes his own heart instead of the
food. I've seen ἔδω + θυμόν before referring to someone's sadness, as
a formula, but maybe this is one case of "standard phraseology
modified" by Homer to fit the particular situation. Here the
"modification" would be just to put the formula near βρομή, making
certain humorous contrast. I've read this idea more than once, at Mark
Edwards' book, and also on Garvie's, but I'm never sure when it
applies and when not. For example here, I don't know for sure if ἔδω +
θυμόν is actually a formula (I think I've only seen it twice).
- 431. ‘ἆ δειλοί, πόσ᾽ ἴμεν; τί κακῶν ἱμείρετε τούτων;
432. Κίρκης ἐς μέγαρον καταβήμεναι, ἥ κεν ἅπαντας
433. ἢ σῦς ἠὲ λύκους ποιήσεται ἠὲ λέοντας,
434. οἵ κέν οἱ μέγα δῶμα φυλάσσοιμεν καὶ ἀνάγκῃ,
I'd expect φυλάσσω to be in the subjunctive mode, and with no κέν, as
a primary purpose clause.
- 447. οὐδὲ μὲν Εὐρύλοχος κοίλῃ παρὰ νηὶ λέλειπτο,
Why is λέλειπτο in the pluperfect tense?
- 465. θυμὸς ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ, ἐπεὶ ἦ μάλα πολλὰ πέποσθε.’
πέποσθε => πεπόνθατε?
- 469. ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δή ῥ᾽ ἐνιαυτὸς ἔην, περὶ δ᾽ ἔτραπον ὧραι
470. μηνῶν φθινόντων, περὶ δ᾽ ἤματα μακρὰ τελέσθη,
I didn't understand the expression περὶ δ᾽ ἔτραπον ὧραι μηνῶν
φθινόντων. Which are the "decaying months"? Does this genitive go with
ὧραι or it is a separative genitive?
- 502. εἰς Ἄϊδος δ᾽ οὔ πώ τις ἀφίκετο νηὶ μελαίνῃ.’
εἰς + gen.? I'd expect ἐκ.
- πολλὰ δὲ γουνοῦσθαι νεκύων ἀμενηνὰ κάρηνα,
How is γουνόομαι connected with its accusative? Is it the same as with
εὔχομαι + acc.?
I have the same question below with λίσσομαι:526. αὐτὰρ ἐπὴν εὐχῇσι λίσῃ κλυτὰ ἔθνεα νεκρῶν,
- 551. Ἐλπήνωρ δέ τις ἔσκε νεώτατος, οὔτε τι λίην
552. ἄλκιμος ἐν πολέμῳ οὔτε φρεσὶν ᾗσιν ἀρηρώς:
How should I read φρεσὶν ᾗσιν ἀρηρώς?
- 563. ἔρχεσθ᾽: ἄλλην δ᾽ ἧμιν ὁδὸν τεκμήρατο Κίρκη,
564. εἰς Ἀίδαο δόμους καὶ ἐπαινῆς Περσεφονείης
565. ψυχῇ χρησομένους Θηβαίου Τειρεσίαο.’
Should not χρησομένους be dative, since it is in apposition with ἧμιν?
- 571. τόφρα δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ οἰχομένη Κίρκη παρὰ νηὶ μελαίνῃ
572. ἀρνειὸν κατέδησεν ὄιν θῆλύν τε μέλαιναν,
573. ῥεῖα παρεξελθοῦσα: τίς ἂν θεὸν οὐκ ἐθέλοντα
574. ὀφθαλμοῖσιν ἴδοιτ᾽ ἢ ἔνθ᾽ ἢ ἔνθα κιόντα;
I didn't understand the sense of the last verse.