It is like saying:
... the penalties, which trials have, are sharp and great.
Remember that attributive adjectives give to the substantive a permanent (or understood as permanent) attribute; but predicat(iv)e ones give to substantives a temporary (or understood as such) attribute. In english (I am not 100% sure though
) you can say:
I fight having my sharp sword, (attributive)
I fight having the sword sharp. (predicative) (Is it correct in english?)
In our case, the penalties are understood by Demosthrnes as temporary, and not permanent.
ἔχω ἑπιτίμια πικρὰ καὶ μεγάλα (I have sharp and great penalties = attributive)
ἔχω πικρὰ καὶ μεγὰλα τὰ ἑπιτίμια (the penalties that I have are sharp and great = predicative)
I hope I have helped you... Utherwise you need help from someone more knowlegeable than me in English.
Dives qui sapiens est...