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Matt. 8:28 ἰσχύειν with infinitive

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Matt. 8:28 ἰσχύειν with infinitive

Postby C. S. Bartholomew » Mon Jan 16, 2012 10:32 pm

Matt. 8:28 Καὶ ἐλθόντος αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ πέραν εἰς τὴν χώραν τῶν Γαδαρηνῶν ὑπήντησαν αὐτῷ δύο δαιμονιζόμενοι ἐκ τῶν μνημείων ἐξερχόμενοι, χαλεποὶ λίαν, ὥστε μὴ ἰσχύειν τινὰ παρελθεῖν διὰ τῆς ὁδοῦ ἐκείνης.

BDAG, F. Danker 3rdEd under ἰσχύω says this verb can take an infinitive which we see above ὥστε μὴ ἰσχύειν τινὰ παρελθεῖν. What Danker doesn’t talk about and none of the NT greek grammars talk about is ἰσχύειν (an infinitive) taking another infinitive. My previous experience with NT grammars suggests that if A.T. Robertson doesn’t mention it, nor N. Turner, BDF, M. Zerwick and numerous lesser lights (R.Young, S.Porter, Moule, to name a few), if some syntax pattern goes without comment then it probably isn’t unusual.

I looked at the form ἰσχύειν in several classical authors and found no instance of it taking an infinitive. It wasn’t a comprehensive search. I suspect that ἰσχύειν τινὰ behaves like a finite verb clause here and taking an infinitive παρελθεῖν is normal syntax.

some samples from NT:

Matt. 2:13 ... μέλλει γὰρ Ἡρῴδης ζητεῖν τὸ παιδίον τοῦ ἀπολέσαι αὐτό.

Mark 3:15 καὶ ἔχειν ἐξουσίαν ἐκβάλλειν τὰ δαιμόνια·

Mark 3:20 ... ὥστε μὴ δύνασθαι αὐτοὺς μηδὲ ἄρτον φαγεῖν.

Mark 5:43 ... καὶ εἶπεν δοθῆναι αὐτῇ φαγεῖν.

but of these, only Mk 3:20 looks like a close match for Matt. 8:28.


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Re: Matt. 8:28 ἰσχύειν with infinitive

Postby Baker » Tue Jan 17, 2012 1:12 am

See LSJ entry for ἰσχύω: 2.b., c. inf. ... Eu. Marc.5.4, et. al.

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Re: Matt. 8:28 ἰσχύειν with infinitive

Postby C. S. Bartholomew » Tue Jan 17, 2012 2:19 am

Eliot wrote:
See LSJ entry for ἰσχύω: 2.b., c. inf. ... Eu. Marc.5.4, et. al.


Thank you. I looked up all the references from LSJ and in each case ἰσχύω was a finite verb with one exception Str.14.2.28 which was participle.

Str.14.2.28
ἑλληνίζων μὴ κατορθοίη, ἀλλ' οὕτω λέγοι τὰ ὀνόματα ὡς οἱ βάρβαροι οἱ εἰσαγόμενοι εἰς τὸν ἑλληνισμὸν οὐκ ἰσχύοντες ἀρτιστομεῖν
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Re: Matt. 8:28 ἰσχύειν with infinitive

Postby C. S. Bartholomew » Tue Jan 17, 2012 5:42 pm

This looks like an example

διὰ τὸ μὴ ἰσχῦσαι ἐκτῖσαι τὸ ὄφλημα

Diodorus Siculus Hist., Bibliotheca historica (lib. 1–20) (0060: 001)
“Diodori bibliotheca historica, 5 vols., 3rd edn.”, Ed. Vogel, F., Fischer, K.T. (post I. Bekker & L. Dindorf)
Leipzig: Teubner, 1:1888; 2:1890; 3:1893; 4–5:1906, Repr. 1964.

10.30.1.1-5
Ὅτι τοῦ Μιλτιάδου υἱὸς ὁ Κίμων, τελευτήσαντος
τοῦ πατρὸς αὐτοῦ ἐν τῇ δημοσίᾳ φυλακῇ διὰ τὸ μὴ
ἰσχῦσαι ἐκτῖσαι τὸ ὄφλημα, ἵνα λάβῃ τὸ σῶμα τοῦ
πατρὸς εἰς ταφήν, ἑαυτὸν εἰς τὴν φυλακὴν παρέ-
δωκε καὶ διεδέξατο τὸ ὄφλημα.

30 Cimon, the son of Miltiades, when his father had died in the state prison because he was unable to pay in full the fine, in order that he might receive his father's body for burial, delivered himself up to prison and assumed the debt.


and several from Philo

Philo Judaeus Phil., Legum allegoriarum libri i–iii (0018: 002)
“Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 1”, Ed. Cohn, L.
Berlin: Reimer, 1896, Repr. 1962.
Book 2, section 82, line 2

ἀλλὰ φέρε τινὰ ἰσχῦσαι ἀκοῦσαι,
ὅτι τέτοκεν ἡ ἀρετὴ τὴν εὐδαιμονίαν Ἰσαάκ, καὶ εὐθὺς συγχαρητικὸν
ὕμνον ὑμνήσει.

(82) ... But suppose that any were able to hear that virtue has brought forth happiness, namely, Isaac, immediately he will sing a congratulatory hymn.

Philo Judaeus Phil., De posteritate Caini (0018: 006)
“Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 2”, Ed. Wendland, P.
Berlin: Reimer, 1897, Repr. 1962.
Section 72, line 2

τὰ γὰρ ἡδονῆς ὁλκοῦ δελέατα αὐστηρῷ τόνῳ καθελεῖν
ἰσχῦσαι τὸν ἐφ' ἑκουσίοις ἔχει κατορθώμασιν ἔπαινον.

(72) for to be able, by a vigorous exertion, to destroy the baits of attractive pleasure, properly receives that praise which belongs to good actions, done with a deliberate purpose.


Philo Judaeus Phil., De fuga et inventione (0018: 017)
“Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 3”, Ed. Wendland, P.
Berlin: Reimer, 1898, Repr. 1962.
Section 14, line 2

ὁρῶν δ' ὅτι πρὸς μάθησιν καὶ νόμιμον ἐπιστασίαν κεκώφωται,
δρασμὸν εἰκότως βουλεύεται· δέδιε γάρ, μὴ πρὸς τῷ μηδὲν ἰσχῦσαι
ὀνῆσαι ἔτι καὶ ζημιωθῇ.

(14) But seeing that he is dumb with respect to learning and to all desirable and legitimate authority, he very naturally thinks of flight. For he is afraid that in addition to not being able to derive any advantage, he may even be injured. For all connections with the foolish injures us, and very often the soul against its will becomes stamped with the impression of their insanity of mind. And, in truth, instruction is naturally a thing inimical to ignorance, and so is industry to indifference.

Philo Judaeus Phil., De confusione linguarum (0018: 013)
“Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 2”, Ed. Wendland, P.
Berlin: Reimer, 1897, Repr. 1962.
Section 120, line 3

πάντες γὰρ οἱ φαυλότατοι λαμβάνουσιν
ἐννοίας περὶ τοῦ μὴ λήσειν τὸ θεῖον ἀδικοῦντες μηδὲ τὸ δίκην ὑφέξειν
εἰσάπαν ἰσχῦσαι διακρούσασθαι· ἐπεὶ πόθεν ἴσασιν, ὅτι σκεδασθήσονται;

(120) For all the most wicked of men adopt ideas that they can never escape the knowledge of the deity when doing wrong, and that they shall never be able to ward off altogether the day of retribution.


Philo Judaeus Phil., De ebrietate
Section 112, line 3


ὁ δὲ αὐτὸς καὶ ἐπὶ τοῦ φρέατος ἐξάρχει, οὐκέτι μόνον ἐπὶ
καθαιρέσει τῶν παθῶν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐπὶ τῷ τὸ κάλλιστον κτημάτων, σοφίαν,
ἀνανταγώνιστον ἰσχῦσαι λαβεῖν, ἣν ἀπεικάζει φρέατι· βαθεῖα γὰρ καὶ
οὐκ ἐπιπόλαιος, γλυκὺ ἀναδιδοῦσα νᾶμα καλοκἀγαθίας | διψώσαις ψυχαῖς,
ἀναγκαιότατον ὁμοῦ καὶ ἥδιστον ποτόν·

(112) And the same prophet begins a song to the well, not only for the destruction of the passions, but also because he has had strength given to him to acquire the most valuable of all possessions, namely incomparable wisdom, which he compares to a well; for it is deep, and not superficial, giving forth a sweet stream to souls who thirst for goodness and virtue, a drink at once most necessary and most sweet.

Philo Judaeus Phil., De plantatione (0018: 010)
“Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 2”, Ed. Wendland, P.
Berlin: Reimer, 1897, Repr. 1962.
Section 8 line 3

τὰς δυσωπίας οὖν εἴ τις ἀποδιδράσκειν βούλοιτο τὰς ἐν τοῖς διαπορηθεῖσι,
λεγέτω μετὰ παρρησίας, ὅτι οὐδὲν τῶν ἐν ὕλαις κραταιὸν οὕτως, ὡς τὸν
κόσμον ἀχθοφορεῖν ἰσχῦσαι, λόγος δὲ ὁ ἀίδιος θεοῦ τοῦ αἰωνίου τὸ ὀχυ-
ρώτατον καὶ | βεβαιότατον ἔρεισμα τῶν ὅλων ἐστίν.

(8) If therefore any one wishes to escape from the difficulties of this question which present themselves in the different doubts thus raised, let him speak freely and say that there is nothing in any material of such power as to be able to support this weight of the world. But it is the eternal law of the everlasting God which is the most supporting and firm foundation of the universe.

Philo Judaeus Phil., Quis rerum divinarum heres sit (0018: 015)
“Philonis Alexandrini opera quae supersunt, vol. 3”, Ed. Wendland, P.
Berlin: Reimer, 1898, Repr. 1962.
Section 143

ἔοικεν οὖν ὁ θεὸς μόνος ἀκρι-
βοδίκαιος εἶναι καὶ μέσα μόνος δύνασθαι διαιρεῖν τά τε σώματα καὶ
πράγματα, ὡς μηδὲν τῶν τμημάτων μηδ' ἀκαρεῖ καὶ ἀμερεῖ τινι πλέον
ἢ ἔλαττον γενέσθαι, τῆς δ' ἀνωτάτω καὶ ἄκρας ἰσότητος μεταλαχεῖν ἰσχῦ-
σαι. εἰ μὲν οὖν τὸ ἴσον μίαν εἶχεν ἰδέαν, ἱκανῶς ἂν τὰ λεχθέντα εἴρητο,
πλειόνων δ' οὐσῶν οὐκ ἀποκνητέον τὰ ἁρμόττοντα προσθεῖναι.

God alone therefore seems to be exactly just, and to be the only being able to divide in the middle bodies and things, in such a manner that none of the divisions shall be greater or less than the other by the smallest and most indivisible portion, and he alone is able to attain to sublime and perfect equality.
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