Hello! I'm new to this fabulous site and a relative beginner in the study of Ancient Greek. There is a matter for which I have yet to find a satisfactory answer. It may have already been addressed in these posts (though I haven't found it if it has). So, at the risk of being accused of beating an apsyxos hippos (if I could get the SPIonic font to kick in, I would), here is my question: What are the IPA equivalents for epsilon and eta? Every text I have seen explains vowels in terms of being like some word or other in English (or French, or German). One site on the web, a French site, stated that the eta was the equivalent of the closed [e] like in 'parler' - but that is a very extreme sound. I suspect the French are seeing Greek through the lens of their own language. As I teach German/French/Italian Diction for singers, I am very particular about IPA usage. Indeed, the symbol [e] is used for the high/closed sound for all three languages, but the Italian is not as closed as the French and German. Symbols (as we know) are imprecise and relative. Is the Greek eta the same as the Italian closed [e]? I look forward to hearing your learned opinions.