theodoros wrote:I wonder who ignorant wrote the horrible word «η άνθρωπος». In the hole Greek literature there isn’t such a word. The woman is η γυνή.
Thanks, theodoros, for your observations! The woman who wrote ἥ άνθρωπος is Anne Mahoney, the author of First Greek Course
, a Lecturer in Classics at Tufts University. I have no idea why she chose to use the feminine article instead of the masculine, except perhaps to show that ἄνθρωπος can mean "woman" as well as "man". According to the 1924 edition of the Liddell & Scott Ancient Greek-English Lexicon
, which I have on my iPod Touch, as well as Lexiphanes, which I have on my iPhone, ἥ ἄνθρωπος was used several times to mean "woman": Pi. P. 4.98, Hdt. 1.60, Isoc. 18.52, and Arist. EN 1148b20. There is also one reference in which it was used to contrast with γυνή: Aeschin. 3.137. It was also used by several other authors, but in a negative connotation. If you want to know why Mahoney used it, you'll have to ask her.
theodoros wrote: Ορά rather [than; gfr] βλέπει.
I looked these two up in the two dictionaries above, and both gave, along with many other meanings, one meaning of them as "see [someone, something]". Both verbs are listed in the vocabulary of Chapter Two with "see" given as the translation. Again, since this is a first-year textbook, I think Mahoney wanted to keep things simple. She also wanted to give the student an -άω verb to work with. Why she chose ὁράω, I don't know. You'll have to ask her.
theodoros wrote: Παιδεύω has the meaning of educate. Teach is διδάσκω.
Thanks for drawing my attention to the difference in meaning. That was my error.
theodoros wrote: For the word order:
Όμηρος παιδεύει τον μαθητήν. Answers the question: What is doing Όμηρος now.
Τον μαθητήν Όμηρος παιδεύει. » » » Whom Όμηρος teaches.
Παιδεύει Όμηρος τον μαθητήν. » » » Where those cries come from (!)
But it is not necessary. Greek is not Latin or German.
Thank you for your input!
theodoros wrote: And don’t use articles everywhere. If you write: Ο Όμηρος παιδεύει τον μαθητήν you mean the certain Όμηρος ( and not someone else) teaches.
I understand what you are saying. However, again, what I am doing is simply quoting (and imitating the syntax of) H & Q and Mahoney. I was curious about the use of the definite article with "Homer", so I took a look at Smyth's Greek Grammar
to see what this very eminent authority had to say about its use. In Section 1136, Smyth discusses the use of the article in Attic Greek with proper names. He says that one of its uses occurs when the name is "specially marked as well known", e.g., ὁ Σόλων (Demosthenes 20.90), οἱ Ἡρακλέες (Plato Theaetetus
169 b). Since I imagine that when first-year textbooks mention "Homer", they are referring to the most well-known man with that name and not to a Homer who lives down the street, ὁ Ὅμηρος is acceptable Attic Greek. heh
theodoros wrote: Use generally articles where in English use “the” and don’t use where you write “a”.
Thank you. That is one convention (rule) I do
theodoros wrote: My advice to beginners is: Read, read, read texts, not study. Don’t care if you can’t understand the most and don’t stay in a word. It is better to memorize short phrases of a writer rather artificial examples, silly most of them.
I agree with the "read, read, read" part. However, I also enjoy studying grammar, syntax, and word order. Artificial examples are often "silly"; I agree. Nevertheless, I find them extremely helpful when I am beginning the study of a new language.
theodoros wrote: I use Modern Greek keyboard that has only οξείαν. Sorry for my English.
No problem. I understood what you wrote.
Thanks again for your comments!