ThomasNoronha wrote:4. Η and Ε are the ones giving me more trouble. Some references state they are the same with length differences, which I've already discarded. Others say Η represents an open "e" sound (IPA: /ε/ like "pet" (en) or the second "e" in "élève"(fr) or the Portuguese and Spanish "é") and that Ε stands for a somewhat more closed "e" sound (IPA: /e/ like the French "beauté", the German "Seele" or the Italian "stelle").
However, others will state the exact opposite: that Η stands for the closed /e/ sound and that Ε stands for the open /ε/. I got really confused there.
Further, some sources state that Η stands for IPA: /ə/ like in arise or in Spanish mañana or Portuguese amanhã.
5. About Ω and Ο I also ended up confused about what letter stands for which sound. We've got the closed sound (IPA: /o/) and the open one (IPA: /ɔ/). Classic texts say that Ο should go as obey and Ω as bone, which ads to my confusion because I read those vowels exactly the same way (though I'm not a native speaker).
6. Concerning ΕΙ, apparently it is not a diphthong but a digraph for a monophthong. That's all very well, but what is the resulting monophthong?
7. ΟΥ is clearly a monophthong, but ΩΥ is still a diphthong right? I suppose I'll have to wait for an answer on 5. to understand this one.
What is the sound difference between Ρ and ΡΡ? I have no problems pronouncing ΡΩ but I'm not sure what to do with two of them together.
9. What are the phonetic values of Σ and in which positions inside a word are they used? In Portuguese it's a pretty messy stuff, as depending on position and etymology a sibilant like in "stop" can be graphed: "s", "ss", "ç" or "c". Also at the end of words an "s" will have a more ush-ush sound like "should".
10. I read some article on the letter Ν and ended up confused. Has it always the same value? For example, at the opining of the Iliad, how do you pronounce the second syllable of ΜΗΝΙΝ (μηνιν), specifically what do you do to the second N. In Portuguese we nasalate vowels so I always tend to do this. Another example, Iliad 4: ΗΡΩΩΝ (ηρωων); the final ΩΝ, should it be read like "on" (english) or "on" (french)?
11. I understand that some N turned into M when before certain letters ore as a result of juxtaposition of NM. Nevertheless, they're to be read as graphed, that is, as M, right?
12. On doubled consonants, are we to prolong the value of the consonant or that of the vowel before it? In either case the idea of a double consonant is to make the first syllable heavy/long, isn't it?
13. As to the FΑΥ/ΔΙΓΑΜΜΑ is it never represented in the editions of Homer works? And if not why exactly? It seems it was read at the time, it only lost it's place in Classical Greek. Is it always replaced by a spiritus asper like in FΑΝΑΞ/ἀναξ?
14 The same question mutatis mutandis regarding the letter QΟΠΠΑ.
ωυ was a diphthong, yes.
The only thing with σ is that it is voiced before voiced consonants.
ThomasNoronha wrote:So it is no longer a diphthong when we come to classic Greek? So do we read ΩΥ as a monophthong? Is it the same sound as ΟΥ?
Would you please elaborate on this one? What do you mean "to voice a Σ"? And which ones are the "voiced consonants": the semi-vowels and doubled consonants? So, as a basic principle a Σ is always read the same way regardless of position. But what difference in pronunciation do you speak about before different consonants? What is the difference in pronouncing Σ before vowels and mutes, like: ΕΠΕΡΣΕ/ἔπερσε or ΣΦΕΤΕΡΗΣΙΝ/σφετέρῃσιν or ΗΣΘΙΟΝ/ἤσθιον; and before other consonants, like: ΔΥΣΜΟΡΩ/δυσμόρῳ or ΙΣΧΕΟ/ἴσχεο
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