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renuntiat: abbreviated perfect?

C.Nepos, "Alcibiades"

Context: Alcibiades has taken refuge in Darius's territory, under the protection of the Persian satrap Pharnabazus, and the two have become fast friends. But Lacedaemonian leader Leander (here referrred to as Laco) wants Alcibiades dead, or as a prisoner.

his Laco rebus commotas statuit accuratius sibi agendum cum Pharnabazo, huic ergo renuntiat quae regi cum Lacedaemoniis convenissent, nisi Alcibiadem vivum aut mortuum sibi tradidisset.

Translation: Shaken by these developments, Leander decided that ...
Read more : renuntiat: abbreviated perfect? | Views : 607 | Replies : 9

A point about snakes in Virgil's Georgics

Georgics 4 contains this text about snakes

Nec rapit immensos orbes per humum, neque tanto
squameus in spiram tractuse colligit anguis.

as part of a list of dangers which are not found in Italy.

But elsewhere in the Georgics Virgil mentions snakes in Italy.

See also http://www.maremmaguide.com/snakes-in-italy.html

To me, the operative word is "immensos"; the only snake with "immensos orbes" likely known to Virgil is likely Python molurus (Indian python) known of from India by ...
Read more : A point about snakes in Virgil's Georgics | Views : 585 | Replies : 4

Length of vowels followed by -nt/-nd

I've noticed this several times before but never bothered to ask about it. According to Wheelock as well as the full-first-conjugation paradigm posted here not too long ago, any vowel preceding -nt and -nd (initial, medial or final) is short. Yet in Horace 1.1 we have:

Condidit (9)
Gaudentem (11)
Findere (11)
Condicionibus (12)
Luctantem (15)

And so on, all metrically long. If they're determined to be long by position because they're followed by two ...
Read more : Length of vowels followed by -nt/-nd | Views : 928 | Replies : 14

ANKI-Deck "Adler Exercises"


I created a deck for the flashcard programme ANKI containing the Q&A-sets (English/Latin) of the Exercises 1-171 from Exercises contained in Adler's Practical Grammar of the Latin Language (based on my transcription version v1.1, 24 December 2015). It contains only Exercises 1-171 because the last Exercise (172) features letters which are not suitable for use with flashcards.

The ANKI-deck can be downloaded from the Download-section of my homepage. The ZIP-file (about 624 kb) contains ...
Read more : ANKI-Deck "Adler Exercises" | Views : 594 | Replies : 3


I can't believe I don't know this or that I haven't figured it out / encountered it until now but the Latin word for grandson appears to be the same as the word for nephew: nepos. Though I do have a sneaking suspicion that someone here explained it to me before - if so apologies...

Searching online dictionaries yield's 'nepos' as a translation for both grandson and nephew. Can any one explain this as it's ...
Read more : Nepos | Views : 600 | Replies : 3

di genuerunt

"di genuerunt" is quoted as a hexameter line ending in Ennius; but what does it mean? Neither of my Latin/English dictionaries list a verb that could have a conjugation form "genuerunt".

("di" presumably means "the gods".)
Read more : di genuerunt | Views : 491 | Replies : 2



As my latin journey progresses, I find myself using wiktionary more and more. It seems to be a fantastic and rather unsung resource. I like it for a few reasons:

1. All declined/conjugated forms of a word are indexed. You can search for a word in any tense, case, gender, number etc, and it will find it.
2. It is multilingual. The page for a word has entries for all languages in which the ...
Read more : wiktionary | Views : 638 | Replies : 5

C.N., Cimon, fuit enim tanta liberalitate

Cornelius Nepos, Cimon

Context: Cimon's lavish generosity

fuit enim tanta liberalitate, cum compluribus locis praedia hortosque haberet, ut numquam in eis custodem posuerit fructus servandi gratia, ne quis impediretur, quominus eis rebus quibus quisque vellet frueretur.

I fear I have something wrong here, but my best effort at translation follows:

He was a man of such generosity, who owned farms and gardens in several places, that he never placed guards in them to ...
Read more : C.N., Cimon, fuit enim tanta liberalitate | Views : 535 | Replies : 5

Adler Exercise 6

Salvete amicorum meorum!

I am working on Exercise 6 in Adler (pensum septimum, page 25).

One of the sentences for translation is:

Have you my good baker's good bread or that of my friend?

My attempt is:

Utrum panem bonum habes mei boni pistoris an mei amici?

However, Adler's key gives the following (with a couple of variations not relevant to my question):

Utrum tibi est bonus pistoris mei boni panis an amici mei.

In ...
Read more : Adler Exercise 6 | Views : 590 | Replies : 9

Quis - Renaissance

Cajetan scripsit: "Quoad secundum, et redditur ratio quare apponatur supra relationem realitas; et quis sit respectus realis, et quis rationis."

"As to the second, and the reason why it is beyond real relation is given; both what a real relation is, and what of reason ."

What does "quis" (2 times) mean here? It seems to mean "what" but quis as far as i am aware usually means who (m/f). Can Quis mean ...
Read more : Quis - Renaissance | Views : 436 | Replies : 2


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